Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

  • View
    218

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    1/341

    Environment Observer

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    2/341

    Environment Observer

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    3/341

    Environment Observer

    National Seminar

    on

    Green EnvironmentTheme : Waste Management

    December 17th - 18th, 2013

    Proceedings

    EDITORIAL BOARD:

    Asso. Prof. Lekshmi M. S., Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

    Asst. Prof. Sangeetha S., Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

    Asst. Prof. Jaseela K. H., Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

    Asst. Prof. Life John, Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

    Asst. Prof. Remjish R.S., Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

    Organized by

    Department of Civil Engineering

    Toc H Institute of Science & Technology

    Arakkunnam, Eranakulam (Dist.)A

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    4/341

    Environment Observer

    ENVIORNMENT

    O B S E R V E R

    December - 2013 

    Vol.- 16

    EDITOR / DIRECTORDr. Mangesh Kashyap

    GUEST EDITORProf. Lathi Karthi

    HOD, Dept. of Civil

    Engineering, TIST

    EXECUTIVE EDITORDr. Mrs. Shirish

    Ambegaonkar

    EDITORITAL

    ASSISTANCE 

    Shri SatchidanadSewalkar

    CO-ORDINATORMrs. Rajashree Mirajkar

    Published by:Society for EnvironmentEducation Research AndManagement (SEERAM)250/A/B Varad, Shaniwar Peth,

    Pune - 411030, Maharashtra,India. Tel : +91-20-24467065cell : +91-9850500334.Email : [email protected]

    Website : www.seeram.org 

    Invitation Price - 250 INR 

    Society for Environment Education Research And Management (SEERAM)

    Proceedings of National Seminar on Green EnvironmentTheme : Waste Management 

    ISSN- 2320- 5997 No part of this publication may be reproduced ortransmitted in any means, electronic or mechanical,

    including photocopy, recording or any information storageand retrieval system, without permission in writing fromthe copyright owners.

    DISCLAIMER

    The authors are solely responsible for the contents of the papers compiled in this volume. The publishers or editorsdo not take any responsibility for the same in any manner.Errors, if any, are purely unintentional and readers are

    requested to communicate such errors to the editors or publishers to avoid discrepancies in future.

    Printed by : Atharv CommunicationsPune - 411030.Email : [email protected]

    B

    http://www.seeram.org/http://www.seeram.org/http://www.seeram.org/http://www.seeram.org/

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    5/341

    Environment Observer

    CHAIR PERSON (Organising Committee) :

    Prof. Lathi Karthi , HOD, Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

    TECHNICAL COMMITTEE MEMBERS:

    Mr. Satchidanand Sewalkar, Director, SEERAM

    Er. P. G. Gopalakrishnan, FIE, IEI

    Dr. C.G. Nandakumar, Reader, Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT

    Er. Dr. May Mathew, FIE, Committee Member, IEI Kochi Local Center- Convener

    Prof.(Dr.) P. Rajeev Kumar, Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

    FACULTY CO-ORDINATORS:

    Asso. Prof . Vasudev R., Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

    Asst. Prof. Anju Paul, Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

    C

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    6/341

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    7/341

    Environment Observer

     About 46 full papers covering the respective focus areas were received as part of

    this seminar. The papers pertaining to the sustainable solid waste management,

    best practices in construction waste management and waste water treatment and

    management together contribute to about 50 % of the total papers received. All

    the papers were technically reviewed by subject experts of the technical

    committee and recommended for publication in the journal “ENVIRONMENT

    OBSERVER”.

    The objective of this seminar was to provide a platform for academicians,

    research scholars, technocrats and practicing civil engineers to throw light in the

    area of waste management, to ignite the young minds by sharing the experiences

    and to emerge with innovative and feasible solutions which will free our country

    from the stingy polluted atmosphere to a serene green environment where

    everybody wishes to dwell. Changes do not happen overnight but each advance

    helps and we hope this seminar helped to move a little forward in the direction of

    sustainable waste management.

    EDITORIAL BOARD:

    Prof. Lathi Karthi (Chairman)

    Asso. Prof. Lekshmi M. S.

    Asst. Prof. Sangeetha S.

    Asst. Prof. Jaseela K. H.

    Asst. Prof. Life John

    Asst. Prof. Remjish R.S.

    E

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    8/341

    Environment Observer

    Content

    Sr.

    No.

    Paper Title Page

    SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 1 Fuzzy Model for Multi-Objective Integrated Solid Waste Management

    System - Isaac P. George

    1

    2 Coconut Builds Up Sustainable Structure - Anju Mary Ealias 8

    3 Economical Utilization of Coir Fibre Dust as Soil Admixture -Sanah Rose Sony

    14

    4 Waste Foot Printing For Waste Management –  

    The Need Of The Hour- Athira Ravi

    19

    5 A Review On Bioreactor Landfills- Hema M 28

    6 Polymer Sponge Assisted Bacterial Digestion method for MunicipalSolid Waste Management- Geevarghese George 

    34

    7 Solid Kitchen Waste Management in the High Ranges  -

    Anoob Sebastian 

    43

    8 An Environmentally Sound Method For Organic DegradationRanjini D S 

    48

    9 Sustainable Waste Management- Priyadarsi Das 54

    10 Study on Waste Management in Visakhapatnam using RIAM analysis-V R Sankar Cheela

    63

    E-WASTE MANAGEMENT11 E-Waste Management-The Present Scenario- Anna Donia Palett 74

    BEST PRACTICES IN CONSTRUCTION

    WASTE MANAGEMENT 12 Utilization of Construction and Demolition Waste

    as Pavement Material- SavioJohn80

    13 Bauxite Residue Management- Theja S N  87

    14 Global scenario of utilization of construction and demolition waste -Job Thomas, Wilson P.M

    95

    15 Construction And Demolition Waste Management- Amrutha Mary.  10616 Study on Concrete with Glass Powder- Shilpa Raju  112

    17 Concrete Technology In Sustainable Development- Jithin Thomas 121

    18 Reduction of Construction Wastes through Efficient Jobsite Practices.-Abhijith Harikumar

    126 

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    9/341

    Environment Observer

    19 Waste Plastic As A Stabilizing Additive In Stone MasticAsphalt - K. Akhil

    134

    20 A Review On Strength And Fracture Properties Of Post ConsumedWaste Plastic Fiber Reinforced Concrete - Asha S

    140

    WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT

    21 Polishing Domestic Wastewater With Subsurface Flow Constructed

    Wetland - Reenu Lizbeth Roy 149

    22 Recovery Of Nutrient From Waste Water Through StruviteCrystallization - J. S. Sudarsan,

    156

    23 The Treatment Of Pulp And Paper Mill WastewaterBy Wet Oxidation- Amrutha K

    164

    24 Comparative Studies on Bioremediation of Municipal Wastewater

    Using Macrophytes and Microalgae - Hossein Azarpira,

    170

    ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION.24 Role of Phytoremediation in Soil Waste Management

     –   Aarya Vimal1 

    180

    25 Incorporating Cement Kiln Dust into Mine Tailing -Based Geopolymer Bricks- Kavya R Varma

    186

    26 Use of Industrial and Agricultural Wastes for making Bricks –  Waste Create Bricks- Mala Pankaj1 

    192

    ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF SOLID WASTE

    MANAGEMENT 

    27 Cost And Economic Returns of Resource Recovery fromMunicipal Solid Waste in Ernakulam- T.Dhanalakshmi,

    198

    SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING 28 Double Skin Facade System –  A Sustainable Strategy for High Rise

    Buildings- Krishna Priya R 1 

    203

    29 Understanding Acoustic Leak Detection Methods For

    Water Distribution Systems- Amith Krishnan. M1 

    209

    30 Green Walls-Annu Anna Alex 215

    31 Sustainable Planning in Urban Transport for theDeveloping Cities in India- Basil Basheerudeen

    223

    32 Decentralised Membrane Filtration System- Aravind Suresh 230

    33 Energy Demand of Urban Transport Sector in theDeveloped Cities of India- Basil Basheerudeen1 

    236

    G

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    10/341

    Environment Observer

    POLLUTION & HEALTH ISSUES 34 Life Cycle Assessment of Rubber Industries in Kerala-

    Mary Dhanya 245 

    SOIL POLLUTION & TREATMENT 35 Bioremediation A Green solution for Soil Pollution- Riya

    Elsa Abraham254

    36 Treatment of Polluted Soils: Translating Science into Practice -Rebecca George

    261

    IMPACT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION ON THE

    ENVIRONMENT37 Study on Urban Environment Quality in Visakhapatnam - V R Sankar

    Cheela1, Basil Basheerudeen2, Resma Vijay3 269

    38

    Impact of Industrial Activities on Heavy Metal Concentrations inMarine Environment of Mangalore- Akshay Gowda K M 277

    39 Impact of Urbanization in Kerala: Case study of CochinCorporation - Basil Basheerudeen1, Aparna Baiju2

    283

    GROUND WATER ISSUES 40 Arsenic Contamination In Ground Water - Mithra.P 1,

    Annie Joy 2 , Dr. A.K. Vasudevan 3 290

    41 Groundwater Wakeup -Asika Johney, Avinash Satheesh, K.Akhil *, Lekshmi M. S.**

    298

    RENEWABLE & NON-RENEWABLE ENERGIES 

    42 Solar Roadways- Parvathi.S 30443 Passive Solar Buildings- Jiya Jaison 310

    44 Sequential Production of Biofuel from Leather FleshingWaste- Dhanya Muralidharan

    316

    45 Scope of Non-Conventional Energy in India- Arjun Murali1  321

    46 Role of FRP as sustainable construction material - An overview

    Ramadass S1 

    326

    H

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    11/341

    Environment Observer Page 1

    SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Fuzzy Model for Multi-Objective Integrated Solid Waste

    Management System 

    Isaac P. George[1]

    , Swarnalatha K.[2]

    [1]College of Engineering, Trivandrum

    [1][email protected]

    [2]Assistant Professor, College of Engineering, Trivandrum

    Abstract: 

    Rapid urbanization and change in life style has increased the waste load and thereby pollution

    loads on the urban environment to unmanageable and alarming proportions. This is particularly

    true for Thiruvananthapuram Corporation in Kerala state, with severe constraints of land

    availability, dense population, environmental fragility and expectation for management of solid

    waste relies on an overly centralized approach. Present study focuses on the optimum selection of

    the treatment and disposal facilities, their capacity planning and waste allocation under

    uncertainty associated with the long-term planning for solid waste management. The fuzzy model

    is based on a multi-objective, multi-period system for integrated planning for solid waste

    management which dynamically locates the facilities and allocates the waste considering fuzzy

    waste quantity and capacity of waste management facility. The model addresses uncertainty in

    waste quantity as well as uncertainties in the operating capacities of waste management facilities

    simultaneously.

    It was observed that uncertainty in waste quantity will affect the planning for waste treatment and

    disposal facilities more as compared with the uncertainty in the capacities of the waste

    management facilities. The relationship between increase in waste quantity and increase in the

    total cost/risk involved in waste management is found to be nonlinear. Therefore, it is possible

    that a marginal change in waste quantity could increase the total cost/risk substantially. The

    information obtained from the analysis of modelling results can be effectively used for

    understanding the effect of changing the priorities and objectives of planning decisions on

    facility selections and waste diversions.

      Key Words: Fuzzy model, integrated soil waste management

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    12/341

    Environment Observer Page 2

      INTRODUCTION 

    The mathematical models can be subjected to rigorous methods of systems analysis for

     planning the Integrated Solid Waste Management System (ISWM). The mathematical models

     provide a systematic means by which the decision-maker can explore the various alternatives in

    order to identify an optimal management strategy.

    Fuzzy modeling can be used for addressing the uncertainty involved in the solid waste

    management planning. The fuzzy modeling is having definite advantage while addressing to the

    uncertainties involved in the waste quantities and the capacity constraints on treatment and

    disposal facilities. Also this approach is unique due to the fact that it gives a set of alternatives

    which are ‗close‘ to the optimal solutions rather than suggesting a unique solution as the optimal

    solution.

      OBJECTIVES OF R ESEARCH PAPER  

      Development of fuzzy model for Integrated Solid Waste Management System (ISWMS) in

    Thiruvanathapuram Corporation

      Validation of the model

      R ESEARCH METHODOLOGY 

    A. Profile of Study Area

    Thiruvananthapuram Corporation has four constituent units. Solid waste management is done

    in a decentralized manner within these regions. Constituent units considered are

    Thiruvananthapuram, Kazhakoottam, Vattiyoorkavu, Nemom.

    Fig. 1: GIS mapping of flow network

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    13/341

    Environment Observer Page 3

    B. Selection of Planning Period

    The planning period of present study is considered to be 17 years divided into four periods. Ist

    Planning Period(P1) : 2013-2015, IInd Planning Period(P2) : 2015-2020 , IIIrd Planning

    Period(P3) : 2020-2025, IVth Planning Period(P4) : 2025-2030.

    C. Collection of Data

      Population data of Thiruvananthapuram Corporation

      Estimation of environmental risk

    Environmental risk=R  p x R f  

    Where R  p=Receptor population, R f = Risk factor, Risk factor = 10-4 to 10-6 (May, 2005)

    D. Formulation of Data in Fuzzy Linear Programming

    Fuzzy inference process comprises of three parts. Fuzzification of the input variables is to take

    the inputs and determine the degree via membership functions. Application of fuzzy operator and

    Ruling with fuzzy operator (AND or OR) and IF THEN ruling. Finally defuzzification, which is

    the conversion of output data in user identifiable form. The problem is subjected to absolute

    constraints such as mass balance of waste at each node, capacity constraints of the treatment

    facility, binary constraints considering the capital investment.

    E. Design of Model in Matlab

    TABLE I: I NPUT DATA FOR FUZZIFICATION 

    No

    .Name

    Notatio

    n

    Members

    hip

    Functions

    Range of

    Values

    1

    Solidwaste

    quantity(tones)

    SWQ

    SWQ1 0-1250

    SWQ2 900-2500

    SWQ3 2200-3750

    SWQ4 3000-5100

    2Change in

    wastequantity

    THETA

    LOW 0-0.5

    HIGH 0.5-1

    3

    Change incapacity

    oftreatment

    GAMMA

    LOW 0-0.5

    HIGH 0.5-1

    4Planning period(years)

    P

    P1 2

    P2 5

    P3 5

    P4 5

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    14/341

    Environment Observer Page 4

    The proposed multi-objective, multi-period model was applied to Thiruvanathapuram

    Corporation to understand the effect of priority to various objectives on waste allocation to

    various management alternatives and to study the effect of aspiration level of the decision maker

    to address the uncertainty in waste generation quantities and the capacities of the waste

    management facilities. Waste treatment and disposal facilities are simulated in a simplified way

    in the form of point nodes with only input and output being modelled. The internal process in the

    facilities is not being modelled in the present study.

    TABLE II: OUTPUT DATA FOR DEFUZIFICATION 

    No. NameNotati

    on

    Members

    hipFunctions

    Range of

    Values

    1Total cost(Crores))

    TC

    LOW 0-300

    MEDIUM 250-750

    HIGH 650-1000

    2Environmenta

    l riskER

    LOW 0-250

    MEDIUM 220-660

    HIGH 640-1000

    3Treatment

     plant

    (TONES)

    GASIFICATI

    ON_1

    LOW 0-150

    MEDIUM 125-275

    HIGH 275-500

    4Treatment

     plant(TONES)

    GASIFICATION_2

    LOW 0-150

    MEDIUM 125-275

    HIGH 275-500

    5Treatment

     plant(TONES)

    GASIFICATION_3

    LOW 0-150

    MEDIUM 125-275

    HIGH 275-500

    6Treatment

     plant(TONES)

    ANABIOR_1

    LOW 0-375

    MEDIUM 300-375

    HIGH 625-1000

    7

    Treatment

     plant(TONES)

    ANABIOR_2

    LOW 0-375

    MEDIUM 300-375HIGH 625-1000

    8Treatment

     plant(TONES)

    MI MI 24

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    15/341

    Environment Observer Page 5

      R ESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

    A. Choice of TechnologyThe high moisture content, low calorific value, substantially high contents of nitrogen,

     phosphorous and potassium in MSW samples indicate that the vegetative fractions of wastes are

    more suitable for composting to organic manure after separating the reusable and recyclable

    fractions. The proposition of RDF and pyrolysis & gasification as potential methods for MSW

    treatment is high, subjected to detailed techno-economic feasibility and sustainability analysis.

    B. Population and Corresponding Waste Quantity Generation

    The estimated populations for various constituencies are analyzed. In this study, future

    quantities of waste generation are estimated based on population forecast and waste generation

    factor. Per capita average waste generation in Thiruvananthapuram is taken as 0.350 kg/day.

    SWQ=P×R

    where P = Population, R = Percapita waste generation, Per capita waste generation=350g

    Fig. 2 (a): Solid waste quantity analysis

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    16/341

    Environment Observer Page 6

    Fig. 2 (b): Solid waste quantity analysis

    Fig. 2 (c): Solid waste quantity analysis

    Fig. 2 (d): Solid waste quantity analysis

    C. Environmental Risk Analysis

    The total risk to environment is computed by multiplying the risk factor (10 -4) with receptor

     population in the region.

    Fig. 3: Environmental risk analysis

    SUGGESTIONS & CONCLUSIONS 

    The fuzzy multi-period planning for solid waste management is especially relevant in case of

    rapidly growing urban centers of developing countries due to great possibility of fluctuating

     parameters. The multi-period planning model can be a very helpful tool for the decision makers

    especially for addressing location – allocation problem of waste disposal facilities with fluctuating

    input parameters. The modeling results could be suitably interpreted for taking an appropriate

    decision from the set of close to optimal alternatives. Further, the model simulations can give

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    17/341

    Environment Observer Page 7

    valuable information for analyzing the existing waste-management practices, the long-term

    capacity planning for the city‘s waste-management system, and the identification of effective

     policies regarding waste minimization and appropriate management options.

    It was observed that uncertainty in waste quantity will affect the planning for waste treatment

    and disposal facilities more as compared with the uncertainty in the capacities of the waste

    management facilities. The relationship between increase in waste quantity and increase in the

    total cost/risk involved in waste management is found to be nonlinear. Therefore, it is possible

    that a marginal change in waste quantity could increase the total cost/risk substantially. The

    information obtained from the analysis of modeling results can be effectively used for

    understanding the effect of changing the priorities and objectives of planning decisions on

    facility selections and waste diversions.

      R EFERENCES 

    [1] Amitabh Kumar Srivastava a, Arvind K. Nema(2012). Fuzzy Parametric Programming Model

    for Multi-objective Integrated Solid Waste Management under Uncertainty

    [2] Chanas, S. (1983). The Use of Fuzzy Parametric Programming in Fuzzy Linear Programming.

    [3] Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 11, 243 – 251

    [4] Ministry of Environment (1999). Environmental Risk of Municipal Non Hazardaous

    Landfilling and Incineration. Technical Report Summary. Standards Development Branch,

    Environmental Sciences and Standards Division, Ontario Ministry of the Environment.

    [5] Mufeed Sharholy, Kafeel Ahmad, Gauhar Mahmood, R.C. Trivedi (2008), Municipal Solid

    Waste Management in Indian Cities

    [6] Moy, P. (2005). A Health Risk Comparison of Landfill Disposal and Waste to Energy (WTE)

    Treatment of Municipal Solid Wastes in New York City. MPH thesis, Mailman School of

    Public Health, Columbia University.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    18/341

    Environment Observer Page 8

    Coconut Builds Up Sustainable Structure 

    Anju Mary Ealias[1]

    , Rajeena A P[2]

    , Sivadutt S[3]

    , Asst. Prof Life John[4]

    [1] [2] [3] B.Tech students,

    [4] Assistant Professor

    Toc H Institute of Science & Technology, CUSAT University

    e-mail Id: [email protected] 

      Abstract: 

    For the environmental and economical benefit, this study focus on generating product

    using agricultural waste to develop an alternative construction material that will lessen the social

    and environmental issues. Coconut shell is one of the main contributors of pollution problem as a

    solid waste. Wastes generated by industrial and agricultural processes have created disposal and

    management problems which pose serious challenges to efforts towards environmental

    conservation. The use of coconut shells as partial replacement for conventional aggregates should

     be encouraged sustainable and environmentally friendly construction material. Concrete using

    coconut shell aggregates results an acceptable strength required for structural concrete. Consider

    the suitability of using coconut shells and fiber as substitute for aggregates in developing

    concrete hollow blocks. This study also determines the suitability of coconut shell ash for use in

     partial replacement of cement in concrete. Coconut fibres reinforced composites have been used

    as cheap and durable non-structural elements. The use of coconut fibres for the production of

     board material has a number of advantages; it is a good alternative to wood and helps to prevent

    deforestation. In addition, there is a trend to produce lightweight and economically profitable

    materials in building construction field. Usage of natural material has the double advantage of

    reduction in the cost of construction material and also as a means of disposal of wastes.

      Key Words: Coconut shell, coconut fibres

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    19/341

    Environment Observer Page 9

     Introduction: 

    The study of coconut shell and coconut fibres as a substitute for construction material is

    another way of using the gifts of coconut tree. The study of coconut shell and fibres will not only

     provide new material for construction but also will help the preservation of the environment andcan also help the economy. Coconut has a total production of 54 billion nuts per annum in more

    than 86 countries worldwide. India occupies the premier position in the world with an annual

     production of 13 billion nuts. Coconut shell accounts for more than 60% of the domestic waste

    volume. Coconut shell, which is an abundantly available agricultural waste from local coconut

    industries, presents serious disposal problems for local environment. These wastes can be used as

     potential material or replacement material in the construction industry. Utilization of coconut

    shell and fibres as building materials will be an important step to improve sustainability.

     Objectives: 

      To discuss the use of coconut shells as partial replacement for conventional aggregates.

      To discuss the suitability of using coconut shells and fiber as substitute for aggregates in

    developing concrete hollow blocks.

      To discuss the suitability of coconut shell ash as partial replacement of cement in concrete

     production.

      To discuss the use of coconut fibres reinforced composites.

      To discuss the use of coconut fibres for the production of board material.

     Research Methodology: 

    The present study is based on the data adopted by various researchers and published in

     journals. The result of study by the authors on fibre reinforced concrete with partial

    replacement of coarse aggregate is also presented here.

     Use of coconut shell as partial replacement for conventional aggregate 

    Various studies was conducted to investigate the properties of concrete using coconut

    shells as replacement for coarse aggregate and to assess the potential use of coconut shell

    concrete as a structural material as well as contribute to knowledge on the use of waste materials

    in construction.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    20/341

    Environment Observer Page 10

    The utilization of coconut shell as partial replacement of coarse aggregate will gained

    importance in the development of light weight concrete. The properties of coconut shell and

    coconut shell aggregate concrete is examined and the use of coconut shell aggregate in

    construction is analyzed. Water absorption and moisture content values are comparable to

    conventional aggregate.  Coconut shell exhibit more resistance against abrasion, crushing and

    impact compared to conventional aggregate. Density of coconut shell is within the range of 550 -

    650 kg/m3 and these are in the specified limits for lightweight aggregate. It is not necessary to

    treat the coconut shell before use as an aggregate except for water absorption test. The presence

    of sugar content in the coconut shell, as it is not in a free sugar form, does not affect the strength

    and setting of concrete. But, compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of

    concrete reduced with increasing percentage of coconut shell replacement. The optimum content

    of coconut shell for replacement is found to be 10% –  20%. From the results, use of coconut shell

    aggregate concrete as structural lightweight concrete is recommended for low cost constructions.

    Coconut shell aggregate is a potential construction material and simultaneously reduces the

    environmental problem of solid waste.

    As a part of our project, examine the suitability of replacing coconut shell as coarse

    aggregate for plain concrete and coir reinforced concrete. Coarse aggregate replaced by 10%

    coconut shell gave more compressive strength than coarse aggregate replaced by 10% coconut

    shell and 3% coir by the weight of cement. pH test result shows that the concrete remains in

    alkaline nature. Addition of coconut shell and coir increases the water absorption property.

    Electrical resistivity is comparable with conventional concrete.

      Suitability of Using Coconut Shells and Fiber as Substitute for Aggregates in Developing

    Concrete Hollow Blocks (CHB)

    The main aim of this study to bring out the importance of use of natural products as

     building material and to find the technical specification of concrete hollow block using coconut

    shell and fibre as aggregates in order to contribute to the industry in saving the environment and

    to sustain good product performance. A conventional concrete hollow block was compared to

    concrete hollow blocks with coconut shells and fibres of the same proportions. Some of the

    interesting insights of the study are:

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    21/341

    Environment Observer Page 11

      Coconut shells and fibres are applicable as partial substitute as coarse aggregates for concrete

    hollow blocks.

      The good indicators of coconut shell and fibres quality as aggregate of concrete hollow

     blocks are particles, texture and shape, resistance to absorption, crushing and surface

    moisture, grading, resistance to heating and freezing and light-weight.

      Coconut shells and coconut fibres are classified as miscellaneous material used for wall

     panels and partitions.

      Physical properties: CHB with coconut and fibres is much darker in color, it have density of

    1213.59 kg/m³ while commercial CHB has a density of 1529 kg/m³.

      Mechanical properties: compressive strength of CHB with coconut and fibres in 28 days of

    age reached a load capacity 65 KN to 84.99 KN and a stress capacity 3.16 MPa to 4.13 MPa.

    The average modulus of rupture is 0.40 MPa. The average modulus of elasticity is 2740 MPa.

    CHB with coconut shell sand fibres have greater modulus of elasticity, lesser moisture

    content and water absorption than the commercial CHB. Also it can resist freezing gained a

    large value of load and resist in high degree of temperature.

      Suitability of Coconut Shell Ash as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete Production

    The cost of cement used in concrete works is on the increase and unaffordable, thus the

    need to find alternative binding materials that can be used solely or in partial replacement of

    cement. One of the agricultural waste material, coconut shells are collected and burnt in the open

    air (uncontrolled combustion) for three hours to produce coconut shell ash (CSA), which in turn

    was used as pozzolana in partial replacement of cement in concrete production. The studies

    showed that the density of concrete cubes for 10-15% replacement was above 2400 Kg/m3. The

    average density decrease from 2525.5 Kg/m3

    for OPC to 2314 Kg/m3

    at 30% replacement. The

    density of cement is higher than that of the CSA. The compressive strength meets the

    requirement for use in both heavy weight and light weight concreting. CSA meets therequirement for a pozzolana. The setting times increases with increase in the amount of CSA.

    The initial setting time increases from 1 hr 5 min at 0% replacement to 3 hrs 26 min at 30%

    replacement while the final setting time increases from 1 hr 26 min at 0% replacement to 4 hrs 22

    min at 30% replacement. The pozzolanic activity index decreases with increasing percentage

    replacement of OPC with CSA. The compressive strength decreases with increasing percentage

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    22/341

    Environment Observer Page 12

    replacement of OPC with CSA. The optimal 28 days strength for OPC-CSA mix is recorded at

    10% replacement is 31.78 N/mm2

    .

      Use of Coconut Fibres Reinforced Composites

    Coconut fibres reinforced composites have been used as cheap and durable non-structural

    elements. Coconut fibres are reported as most ductile and energy absorbent material. Coconut

    fibres have the potential to be used in composites for different purposes. In order to acquire

    knowledge for designing low-cost safe housing in earthquake prone regions, the basic dynamic

    features of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC) structural members is investigated. Natural

    coir fibres having a length of 7.5 cm and a fibre content of 3 % by weight of cement are used to

     prepare CFRC beams. Coconut rope having a tensile strength of 7.8 MPa and diameter of 1 cm is

    added as the main reinforcement.The workability of CFRC is a major problem because of the presence of fibres. Damping

    of cracked CFRC beams increases when the natural frequency decreases. CFRC with coir rope

    rebars has the potential to be used as main structural members due to its increased damping and

    ductility. Pouring CFRC into formwork requires special attention, especially to maintain constant

    cover for the rope. The bearing capacity of CFRC beams with different rope diameters and the

    effect of knots at different locations along the length of beams are significant.

      The Use of Coconut Fibres for the Production of Board Material

    The board material that is made from coconut husk can be used in different areas such as

    wallboards, frames. Use of coir fibres aimed to prove the feasibility of a new technically efficient

    and financially  competitive method for the production of environmentally safe and high

     performance construction materials. The potential of the application of a specific technology for

    the production of high quality coir fibre boards by making use of the specific chemical

    composition of the coir fibre in particular its high content of lignin.

    After separation from the coconut, the husk is refined to small particles and short fibres

    using a simple technique by dry hammer milling, which yields suitable material for conversion

    into boards by hot pressing. The obtained boards show very good mechanical properties

    comparable to those of commercial medium density fibreboard (MDF). The thickness, swelling

    and water absorption of the coconut husk board is lower than for MDF. The density of the

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    23/341

    Environment Observer Page 13

    coconut husk boards (1.3  –   1.4 g/cm3) is higher than for commercial MDF. The very good

     performance of the boards produced in this way opens many possibilities for the development of

    cheap and strong building materials.

      Suggestions & Conclusions:

      The study of coconut shell and fibres will not only provide new material for construction but

    also will help the preservation of the environment and can also help the economy.

      Using of alternative materials in place of natural aggregate in concrete production makes

    concrete as sustainable and environmentally friendly construction material.

      The concrete using coconut shell aggregates satisfies the minimum requirements of concrete.

      Hollow block using coconut shell and coconut fibers as aggregates in order to contribute to

    the industry in saving the environment and to sustain good product performance and meet

    recycling goals.

      The optimum level of portland cement replacement with coconut shell ash that will still give

    required compressive strength which meets the requirement for use in both heavy weight and

    light weight concreting.

      Coconut fibres reinforced composites have been used as cheap and durable non-structural

    elements, which is suitable for low-cost safe housing in earthquake prone regions

      The use of coconut husks for the production of board material method is sustainable and

    environmentally friendly. It is a good alternative to wood.

      References:

      Daniel Yaw Osei. (2013), “Experimental assessment on coconut shells as aggregate in concrete”,

    International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, Vol. 2, Issue 5, pp. 07-11.

      Maninder Kaur, Manpreet Kaur. (2012), “A Review on Utilization  of Coconut Shell as Coarse

     Aggregates in Mass Concrete”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 7 Issue

    11.

      Tomas Ucol, Ganiron Jr. (2013), “Recycling of Waste Coconut Shells as Substitute for Aggregates in Mix

    Proportioning of Concrete Hollow Blocks”, Wseas Transactions on Environment and Development, Vol. 9,Issue 4, pp. 290-300.

      Utsev J. T, Taku J. K. (2012), “Coconut Shell Ash as Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland

    Cement in Concrete Production”, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research Vol. 1,

    Issue 8, pp. 86-89.

      Majid Ali.(2010), “Coconut Fibre –  A Versatile Material and its Applications in Engineering”, Second

    International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials & Technologies.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    24/341

    Environment Observer Page 14

    Economical Utilization of Coir Fibre Dust as Soil Admixture

    Sanah Rose Sony1

    , Life John2

    1.  B.Tech Student, Deprtment of Civil Engineering, TIST2.  Asst. Prof., Deprtment of Civil Engineering, TIST

      Abstract

    Scientists are now focusing more on the use of natural fibres such as bagasse, coir, sisal, jute etc. due

    to increasing concerns about global warming and depleting petroleum reserves. This has resulted in

    creation of more awareness about the use of natural fibres based materials mainly composites. Coir Pith,

    a by-product of the coir industry was initially considered as a waste product. It was leading to pollution

     problems even causing to fire hazards. It was also causing problems because of its slow decomposition

    rate.But those exact problems of coir pith can be turned into its advantage. Coir pith, an organic matter,

    has an excellent water retaining ability which can be put to use in the agriculture industry. Agricultural

    wastes like coir pith can be used to prepare fibre reinforced polymer composites for commercial use.

    Composted coir pith has been found to be immensely useful in crop production and compensates for the

    lack of nutrients in raw coir pith.

    In places where water source is scarce, irrigation water can be saved by mixing coir pith in the soil.

     Not only will it retain enormous quantity of the water supplied, its fibrous nature also provides enough

    aeration for better root development. Its slow decomposition rate will ensure that it does not have to be

    replaced frequently  –   thereby reducing cost. Its abundant availability will also ensure its good

     performance.

      Key Words:Coir Pith, Waste Management, Water Conservation.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    25/341

    Environment Observer Page 15

      Introduction

    India is one of the leading countries of the world in the cultivation and production of coconuts. In

    India, particularly from the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and the Union Territories,

    annually around 14,000 million coconuts are being produced. Coconut, the fruit of cocosnucifers, is

    largely used for its kernel which a raw material for oil. The spongy pericarp (husk) which is left as a by-

     product during the exploitation of coconuts serves as raw material for coir fibre. Coir Pith is the elastic

    cellular cork like pithy material which forms the non-fibrous tissue of the husk. 50-60% of the total

    weight of the husk is accounted by this pith. It is extracted from husk either by retting or mechanical

    methods.

    In India, around 0.5 million tonnes of coir pith is being produced annually. As the demand for coir

    and its products is slowly decreasing, other profitable markets have to be found for it. The existing coir

    industry can be brought to a higher level by the development of new coir products.

      Environmental Hazards caused by Coir Pith

    Coir industries are facing great difficulties in the disposal of coir pith. Very often coir pith is heaped

    as mounds on the way side. Large quantities of coir pith thus stored causes contamination of potable

    groundwater due to percolation of leachates containing residual phenol from these dumps especially

    during rainy season. It also acts as an ideal breeding ground for rodents and insects.

    Coir pith is easily blown by wind due to its light weight thereby creating air pollution. In comparison

    to other waste materials such as saw dust, rice husk and groundnut shell, coir pith is found to have a

    higher heat value. Due to its poor combustion properties, high levels of carbon dioxide and smoke are

    released from coir pith while burning. It also has a very slow decomposition rate.

      Coir Pith as a Soil Admixture

     Nowadays, the exact disadvantages of coir pith can be turned into its advantages. Coir Pith has many

     beneficial characteristics which after proper composting can be used in agriculture as a potentially

     productive resource. It is also known as coco peat as composted and stabilized coir pith resembles peat

    and has characteristics similar to that of the most commonly used rooting medium in horticulture,

    sphagnum peat. It has high moisture retention capacity and it is capable of retaining large amounts of

    nitrogen and other nutrients.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    26/341

    Environment Observer Page 16

    Even though all these properties make it an ideal material for use as soil amendment and rooting

    medium for soil-less plant culture, direct use of raw coir pith is not recommended due to its high C : N

    ratio and lignin content. Agricultural use of untreated coir pith could lead to microbial immobilization of

    soil nitrogen and subsequent nitrogen deficiency in plants. But these shortcomings of fresh coir pith can

     be managed if it is used after composting process.

    It can be used as substitute for peat, because it is free of bacteria and most fungal spores, and is

    sustainably produced without the environmental damage caused by peat mining.Mixed with sand,

    compost and fertilizer, it makes a good quality potting soil. Coir pith generally has an acidity in the range

    of pH - 5.5 to 6.5. It is a little on the acidic side for some plants, but many popular plants can tolerate this

     pH range.

    Its slow decomposition rate is another factor that been a major advantage for the agriculture and

    irrigation industry. It would not require any maintenance and only has to be renewed in very long

    intervals. In places of water scarcity, it helps in irrigation water conservation by improving soil field

    capacity. In addition to holding water, its fibrous nature will ensure that it holds enough air for the

    healthy development of the plant and its root.

    Quality of coir pith is an important issue. With trials, it has been found out that the airiness of coir

     pith is one of the main factors for a successful crop development in the substrate. But physical conditions

    can differ. As these conditions are decisive for the airiness of the coir pith it is important to know the

    facts.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    27/341

    Environment Observer Page 17

    Airiness of coir pith will be more or less either by coarseness or by age of the material. The older the

    coir pith the finer it will be. Finer coir pith is less aired and can contain more water than coarse material.

    While some crops demand a huge amount of water, other crops need a high airiness. Therefore it is

    important to know the material to start the growth with.

      Future uses of Coir Pith

    Low cost, easy availability, low density, acceptable specific properties, ease of separation,

     biodegradability and recyclable nature of natural fibre has gained it attention as a reinforcement in

    composites. Agricultural wastes like coir pith can be used for preparing fibre reinforced polymer

    composites for commercial use.

    There is a wide scope of commercial utilization of coir and coir dust, either on their own or in

    combination with other raw materials, to make products like mat and matting, twine and rope, particle

     board, fertilizer, rubberized coir and applications such as upholstery cushioning, pad and carpet underlay.

    Coir pith blocks have now found a unique purpose in the aviation sector and its effectiveness is under

    close evaluation both by the National Institute of Technology and the National Airports Authority of

    India particularly in table top runways to avert accidents. The process involves filling coir pith blocks

    around runway edges to provide a cushioning effect for aircrafts in the event of it overshooting the

    runway.

    Coir Pith Blocks

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    28/341

    Environment Observer Page 18

      Conclusion

    Sunlight, air, water and nutrients are the basic requirements for healthy plant growth. Coir pith is an

    excellent potting medium and soil conditioner applicable to agricultural crops and an ideal substitute for

     peat. Soil is mostly unsuitable for production of plants in containers due to the absence of physical

     properties like aeration, drainage and water holding capacity. Coir pith is a multi-purpose growing

    medium that provides new opportunities for potting plants production. The fertile growth of plants during

    the summer season, in dry lands and also at the time of deficiency of minerals in the soil can be avoided

    using coir pith products.

    The uses of coir pith are increasing day by day. The way coir pith the waste product was converted

    into coir pith the multi-tasking material is truly impressive. Following in the path of this example,

    hopefully more and more waste material will be put to use and help emphasise the importance of the

    three Rs –  Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

    On our journey to a greener and healthier world, it is necessary to make use of and cherish the

    various natural and extraordinary things that the good earth provides us. Sustainability should be made

    maximum use of to remind us of the fact that us that we did not inherit this world from our ancestors,

    rather we borrowed it from our children.

      References:

      Joseph, M. ―A Study on the Water Retention Characteristics of Soils and its Improvement‖,  A Thesis.2010.

      Krishnamoorthi, V.V, Subramanion, K.S, Selvakumar, G and Chinna swami, K.N. ―Influence of

    composted coir pith in red soil with sunflower‖,  Proceedings of \Seminar on Utilization of Coir

     Pith in Agriculture, 20th November at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. pp 159-

    162.1991.

      Rajarathnam, S and Shashirekha, M. N. ―Bioconversion and biotransformation of coir pith for

    economic production of Pleurotusflorida: chemical and biochemical changes in coir pith during the

    mushroom growth and fructification‖, World journal of Microbiology and biotechnology, Vol. 23, pp

    1107 to 1114.2007.

      Ronald Ross. P, Paramanandham. J, Thenmozhi. P, Abbiramy. K. S, and Muthulingam. M.

    ―Determination of Physico-Chemical Properties of Coir Pith in relation to particle size suitable for

     potting medium‖, International Journal of Research in Environmental ScienceandTechnology, ISSN

    2249 –  9695.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    29/341

    Environment Observer Page 19

    Waste Foot Printing For Waste Management –  

    The Need Of The Hour

    Athira Ravi1, Subha V.2 1Research Scholar, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, India

    e-mail id:[email protected] Professor, Division of Civil Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi,

    e-mail id: [email protected] 

    Abstract: 

    Throughout the time, the amount of  waste generated by humans was not worth mentioning due

    to low population density and low societal levels of the consumption of  natural resources. 

    Common waste produced during pre modern era was mainly ashes and human  waste, and these

    were released back into the ground locally, with least environmental impact.  Following the

    onset of  industrialization and the sustained urban growth of large population centers, the

     buildup of waste in the cities caused a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitation and the general

    quality of urban life. The streets became choked with rubbish due to the lack of waste clearance

    regulations. A lot of solutions arose like land filling, composting, incineration, pyrolisis etc. for

    handling the problem. But all of these either had an environmental impact or a public protest.

    There are two aspects for this waste management challenge. One is the social mind set and the

    second is the technology application. What is happening today is the introduction of new and

    new techniques for disposal without controlling the social mind set. We are paying electricity

     bill, water bill, security charge, land tax, income tax etc. Why can‘t we pay a waste bill based

    on the impact on environment from the amount of waste generated or have a strict politic

    decision restricting the quantity of impact of waste on environment or rewards for lower waste

    impacts? Waste foot printing is one such technique which quantifies the impact of waste

    generated by an individual. With proper waste foot printing and an apt political decision willsolve the waste management problems in the urban and rural areas to a great extend. This paper

    gives an overview of the waste foot print, methods for calculating the waste foot print

    especially that of solid waste and some simple ways to reduce the foot print.

      Key Words: Waste management, Waste foot print

    mailto:[email protected]:[email protected]://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wastehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_densityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_resourceshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradable_wastehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_degradationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_revolutionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_revolutionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_degradationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradable_wastehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_resourceshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_densityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wastemailto:[email protected]:[email protected]

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    30/341

    Environment Observer Page 20

     Introduction:

    Urbanisation is the movement of people from rural to urban areas. The urbanization trend

    nowadays and the modern life style have increased the waste load on the earth and thereby

     polluting the urban environment to uncontrollable and dreadful limits. The existing land fill

    sites and waste dumping sites are full beyond capacity and under unhygienic conditions leading

    to pollution of water sources, proliferation of vectors of communicable diseases, foul smell and

    odors, release of toxic chemicals, unaesthetic feel and ambience etc (R.Varma).In earlier days,

    municipal wastes, comprised mainly of biodegradable matter, did not create much problem to

    the community as the quantity of wastes generated was either recycled/reused directly as

    manure or was within the assimilative capacity of the local environment (R.Varma).The

     biodegradable wastes of the urban centres were accepted by the suburban rural areas for bio

    composting in the agricultural areas. With increasing content of plastics and non-biodegradable

     packaging materials, municipal wastes became increasingly offensive to the farmers and

    cultivators. As a result, the excessive accumulation of solid wastes in the urban environment

     poses serious threat not only to the urban areas but also to the rural areas. Now, dealing with

    waste, is a major challenge in many of the local bodies or government. There are two aspects to

    the challenge, the social mind set and technology application (R.Varma).The social mind set is

    a very important aspect to be considered in this challenge. People are having the notion that the

    government is the authority to dispose whatever waste they are generating. This is very pathetic

    situation. Only the generators can manage waste. Though there are campaigns and awareness

     programmes to reduce the waste generation and source reduction, it is very hard to maintain the

    enthusiasm after the campaigns. In these circumstances we have to think of an alternative

    which is to be enforced by laws or rewards to reduce the amount of waste generation. A

    system, which gives the waste impact on earth quantified, just as we take the current bill, water

     bill etc and an amount to be paid based on the quantity, should be imagined. Or on the otherhand the waste generators which are causing low impact should be rewarded or appreciated.

    There should be clear cut limit for this quantified value based on the locality we live in and its

     biocapacity to assimilate the waste. Waste foot printing is one such tool which can reach these

    goals to some extent. This paper gives an introduction to the waste footprint, methodology for

    its calculation and the ways for reducing the waste footprint.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    31/341

    Environment Observer Page 21

      Waste foot print:

    By the waste footprint or the ecological footprint of waste generation, the measurement of

     biologically productive land like fossil, energy land, forest land, pasture land, built up area

    etc, to assimilate the generated waste is meant (B.Lexington,2007) Waste footprint can

     provide the per capita land requirements for waste generation. By calculating the waste

    footprint, the local authority can determine the land required to assimilate the waste generated

    in present and future, selection of disposal site and disposal site characteristics, the land fill

    site design and the importance of recycling of different waste categories in order to reduce the

    footprint (M. Salequzzaman ,2006).

      Methodology for calculating the waste foot

    print:

    This section explains the calculation of foot print especially the solid waste footprint. In

    calculating the ecological footprint for household waste generation, methodology to assess the

    household ecological footprint, developed by M. Wackernagel et al. can be used. The methodology

    utilizes the resource consumption and waste generation categories and the land use categories for those

    consumption and waste generation (M. Salequzzaman ,2006). The land use categories are

    summarized as (M. Salequzzaman ,2006).

      Energy Land: The area of forest that would be required to absorb the CO2 emissions resulting

    from that individual‘s energy consumption. 

      Crop Land: The area of cropland required to produce the crops that the individual consumes.

      Pasture Land: The area of grazing land required to produce the necessary animal products.

      Forest Land: The area of forest required to produce the wood and paper.

      Sea Space: The area of sea required to produce the marine fish and seafood.

      Built Area: The area of land required to accommodate housing and infrastructure.

    To calculate the ecological footprint of waste generation, the generated waste is categorized as paper,

     plastic, glass, metal and organic waste. The biologically productive land required for this waste

    generation is calculated by equations and is as follows (M. Salequzzaman ,2006).

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    32/341

    Environment Observer Page 22

    A. Biologically productive land required for paper

    ⁄  

    Where,

    The energy yield (assumed to be average fossil fuel = liquid fossil fuel) is 73000 Mj /

    10000 m2-year.

    Energy intensity of paper is 35 Mj/kg.

    Waste factor is the percentage of paper consumed.

    ⁄  

    Where,

    World average yield of round wood is 10000/2.6 m3/hectare.

    Ratio of round wood needed per unit paper is 1.65/1000.

    Waste factor is the percentage of paper consumed.

       

    Where,

    Energy land required for paper waste get from equation no. (1)

    Built up land footprint component of waste is 1100m2.

    World average fossil fuel area of goods is 1324 hectare.

    World average fossil fuel area of waste is 1196 hectare.

    Primary biomass equivalence factor for built up area is 3.5

    B. Biologically productive land required for plastic

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    33/341

    Environment Observer Page 23

       

    Where,

    The energy yield (assumed to be average fuel = liquid fossil fuel) is 73000 Mj/ 10000

    m2-year.

    Energy intensity of plastic is 50 Mj/kg

     

    Where,

    Energy land required for plastic waste get from equation no. (4)

    Built up land footprint component of waste is 1100m2.

    World average fossil fuel area of goods is 1324 hectare.

    World average fossil fuel area of waste is 1196 hectare.

    Primary biomass equivalence factor for built up area is 3.5

    C. Biologically productive land required for glass

     

    Where,

    The energy yield (assumed to be average fossil fuel = liquid fossil fuel) is 73000 Mj /

    10000 m2-year.

    Energy intensity of glass is 15 Mj/kg

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    34/341

    Environment Observer Page 24

     Where,

    Energy land required for glass waste get from equation no.(6)

    Built up land footprint component of waste is 1100m2.

    World average fossil fuel area of goods is 1324 hectare.

    World average fossil fuel area of waste is 1196 hectare.

    Primary biomass equivalence factor for built up area is 3.5

    D. Biologically productive land required for metal

     

    Where,

    The energy yield (assumed to be average fuel = liquid fossil fuel) is 73000 Mj / 10000

    m2-year.

    Energy intensity of metal is 60 Mj/kg

     

    Where,

    Energy land required for metal waste get from equation no. (8)

    Built up land footprint component of waste is 1100m2.

    World average fossil fuel area of goods is 1324 hectare.World average fossil fuel area of waste is 1196 hectare.

    Primary biomass equivalence factor for built up area is 3.5

    E. Biologically productive land required for organic waste (food)

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    35/341

    Environment Observer Page 25

     

    Where,

    The energy yield (assumed to be average fossil fuel = liquid fossil fuel) is 73000 Mj /

    10000 m2-year.

    Energy intensity of organic waste is 30 Mj/kg

    The amount of recycling of organic waste is equal to the amount of composting

    Energy saved from the recycling of organic waste is determined by the following way (M.

    Salequzzaman ,2006). 

    1.  Calculating the amount of biogas from the organic waste.2.  Calculating the energy production from that biogas.

    3.  Calculating the percentage of energy getting from organic waste.

    4. 

    1) Biogas production

    The amount of biogas (X) generated from total areas is calculated from the relation:

      ( )  

    II) Energy production

    The expected amount of energy from biogas in total areas is

    ( )  

    III) Percentage of energy saved from organic waste

     

    Where,

    Energy land required for organic waste get from equation no. (10)

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    36/341

    Environment Observer Page 26

    World average fossil fuel area of goods is 1324 hectare.

    World average fossil fuel area of waste is 1196 hectare.

    Primary biomass equivalence factor for built up area is 3.5

    F. Obtaining the total footprint for waste generation

    The sum of the total land required for different waste categories the biologically productive land

    required for waste assimilation can be obtained, which means the ecological footprint of waste

    generation.

     Ways to reduce the waste foot print:

    The section points outs some simple ways to reduce the waste foot print (G. Matthew,1994).

     Purchase products which require less packaging and materials.

     Use reusable bags rather than plastic bags.

     Buy things only to our need

     Stick on to environment friendly products

     Reduce — Reuse — Recycle. Recycle all material possible.

     Avoid use of disposables and individually wrapped single servings.

     Compost the food and organic waste.

     Create awareness among people

     Dispose the waste generated at the source itself rather than carry to distant places fordisposal.

      Conclusion:

     Nowadays the greed among the various manufacturing companies and inconsistent demands of

    the consumer have given way to turning a blind eye to the environment destruction due to waste

    disposal we bare down upon our finite planet. Moreover people are having a tendency to

     purchase things not according to the demand. They are not bothered about the waste generationfrom their own houses and work places. But rather they blame the authorities for not disposing

    these wastes. The authorities can give a technical solution to disposal. But the actual problem

    settles or comes under control when we consider where the waste comes from and not simply

    where it is going. That is, we individuals have to change our mind set. Individuals or households

    or enterprises should calculate the amount of waste generation and their impact on the

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    37/341

    Environment Observer Page 27

    environment. And this must be compared with the biocapacity of our location in which we lives

    to assimilate the per capita waste generation. The waste foot printing technique is such a

    quantitative tool which can assess the individual impact of earth due to the waste generation.

    Taxation based on waste footprint, or incentives for low waste foot print or restricting the

    maximum allowable waste footprint in a location by proper regulations, can reduce the waste

    management problems to a great extend. 

      References: 

    R. Ajayakumar Varma, ―Technology options for treatment of municipal solid waste with special reference to

    Kerala‖ Available online www.sanitation.kerala.gov.in/pdf /workshop/techno_2. pdf. 

    B.Lexington (2007) ―Waste Footprint: Introduction‖, Available online www.triplepundit.com /2007 /12/ waste-

    footprint-introduction/

    M. Salequzzaman (2006). ―Ecological Footprint of Waste Generation: A Sustainable Tool for Solid Waste

    Management of Khulna City Corporation of Bangladesh‖ Environmental Science Discipline, Khulna University,

    Bangladesh.

    G. Matthew (1994). Recycling and the Politics of Urban Waste. Earthscan Publications, London

    http://www.sanitation.kerala.gov.in/pdf%20/workshop/techno_2.%20pdfhttp://www.sanitation.kerala.gov.in/pdf%20/workshop/techno_2.%20pdfhttp://books.google.co.uk/books?id=oG45tkEtprwC&dq=corbyn+morris+waste+management&source=gbs_navlinks_shttp://books.google.co.uk/books?id=oG45tkEtprwC&dq=corbyn+morris+waste+management&source=gbs_navlinks_shttp://www.sanitation.kerala.gov.in/pdf%20/workshop/techno_2.%20pdf

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    38/341

    Environment Observer Page 28

    A Review On Bioreactor Landfills

    Hema M1, S Usha

    2, Lija M Paul

    1 UG Student, SNGCE, Kadayiruppu.2

     Professor, SNGCE, Kadayiruppu.3 Associate Professor, SNGCE, Kadayiruppu.

    email ID : [email protected]

    ABSTRACT

    Land filling is the most common means of disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW),

    especially in foreign countries. Bioreactor landfills are MSW landfills that provide favourable

    conditions for microbes to biologically stabilize waste within a relatively short period of time.

    This is done by leachate recirculation, introduction of additional moisture and enhancing other

    factor that promote bioactivity. Stabilization occurs in 5 to 10 years as compared to 30 to 100

    years in a conventional landfill. During stabilization, waste mass is lost through the production of

    landfill gas. The resulting landfill mass, consisting of non biodegradable waste (metal, plastic,

    glass) as well as residual biodegradable materials, will settle, decreasing volume of placed

    material.

    Based on waste biodegradation mechanisms, different kinds of bioreactor landfills including

    anaerobic bioreactors, anaerobic bioreactors and aerobic-anaerobic bioreactors have been

    constructed and operated worldwide. In an anaerobic bioreactor landfill, moisture is added to the

    waste and biodegradation occurs in the absence of oxygen and enhances rates of methane

     production as a biogas fuel. An aerobic bioreactor landfill addition of air and moisture to help

     promote aerobic activity and waste production. The hybrid technique utilizes both aerobic and

    anaerobic methods to accelerate waste degradation. The design of bioreactor landfills requires a

    careful assessment of several engineering issues such as leachate/moisture distribution, waste

    degradation and gas generation, waste settlement and stability of waste slopes.

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The generation of solid waste has become an increasingly important global issue over the

    last decade due to the escalating growth in world population and large increase in waste

     production. This increase in solid waste generation poses numerous questions regarding the

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    39/341

    Environment Observer Page 29

    adequacy of conventional waste management systems and their environmental effects. Landfill

    disposal is the most commonly used waste management method worldwide. A bioreactor landfill

    is a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill that uses enhanced biochemical processes to transform

    and stabilize the decomposable organic waste within a short period of time, i.e. typically 5 to 10

    years, as compared to the long time, typically 30 to 100 years, required for conventional or 'dry

    tomb' landfills. Landfill stabilization means that the measurable environmental parameters such

    as landfill gas constitution, leachate composition etc, remain at steady levels.  Based on the

     biodegradation process, the bioreactor landfills can be classified as anaerobic, aerobic, hybrid

    and facultative. Bioreactor features may be incorporated into any new landfill design. 

    2. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL TYPES

    2.1. Anaerobic Bioreactor

    The Anaerobic Bioreactor seeks to accelerate the degradation of waste by optimizing

    conditions for anaerobic bacteria. In these landfills, a collection of anaerobic bacteria are

    responsible for the conversion of organic wastes into organic acids and ultimately into methane

    and carbon dioxide. Anaerobic conditions develop naturally in nearly all landfills without any

    intervention. The waste in typical landfills contains between 10 and 25 percent water. Generally,

    to optimize anaerobic degradation, 35 to 40 percent moisture is required. Moisture is typically

    added in the form of leachate through a variety of delivery systems. However, the amount of

    leachate produced at many sites is insufficient to achieve optimal moisture conditions in the

    waste. Additional sources of moisture such as sewage sludge, storm water, and other non-

    hazardous liquid wastes may therefore be necessary to increase the leachate available for

    recirculation. As the moisture content of the waste approaches optimal levels, the rate of waste

    degradation increases, which in turn leads to an increase in the amount of landfill gas produced.

    Also observed is an increase in the density of the waste. While the rate of gas production in an

    anaerobic bioreactor can be twice as high as a normal landfill, the duration of gas production is

    significantly shorter. Because of this accelerated production, gas collection systems at bioreactorlandfills must be capable of handling a higher peak volume but need do so for a shorter period of

    time.

    2.2. Aerobic Bioreactor

    The Aerobic Bioreactor seeks to accelerate waste degradation by optimizing conditions

    for aerobes. Aerobes are organisms that require oxygen for cellular respiration. Aerobes require

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    40/341

    Environment Observer Page 30

    sufficient water to function just as anaerobes do. However, aerobic organisms can grow more

    quickly than anaerobes because aerobic respiration is more efficient at generating energy. So, the

    aerobic degradation can proceed faster than anaerobic degradation. In landfills aerobic activity is

     promoted through injection of air or oxygen into the waste mass. It is also possible to apply a

    vacuum to the waste mass and pull air in through a permeable cap. Liquids are typically added

    through leachate recirculation, with the need for additional sources of moisture even more acute

    than for anaerobic reactors. The aerobic process does not generate methane.

    2.3. Facultative Bioreactor

    The Facultative Bioreactor combines conventional anaerobic degradation with a

    mechanism for controlling the high ammonia concentrations that may develop when liquids are

    added to the landfill. In this system leachate containing elevated levels of ammonia is treated

    using the biological process of nitrification. The nitrification process converts the ammonia in the

    leachate to nitrate. The treated leachate is then added to the landfill. Here certain microorganisms

    including the facultative bacteria can use the nitrate in the absence of oxygen for respiration. This

     process, called denitrification, can result in the production of nitrogen gas (N2), which effectively

    removes nitrogen from the system. As with other forms of bioreactor landfills, the facultative

     bioreactor requires adequate moisture levels to function optimally 

    3. LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Leachate is a liquid that has percolated through solid waste and has extracted, dissolved

    and suspended materials that may include potentially harmful substances. The quantity of

    leachate seeping from the landfill is proportional to the buildup of leachate within the landfill,

    alternatively known as leachate mould. It can cause serious problems it can lead to contamination

    of soil, ground water and surface water if not properly treated. An effective method for the

    treatment of the leachate is to collect and re-circulate the leachate through the landfill. This

    increases the landfill's moisture content, which in turn increases the rate of biological degradation

    of landfill, the biological stability of the landfill and the rate of methane recovery from the

    landfill. During leachate re-circulation, the leachate is returned to a lined landfill for re-

    infiltration into the municipal solid waste. This is considered as a method of leachate control

     because, as the leachate continues to flow through the landfill, it is treated through biological

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    41/341

    Environment Observer Page 31

     process, precipitation and absorption. The different methods of leachate introduction are direct

    application, spray irrigation, infiltration ponds, subsurface trenches or wells.

    4. TECHNOLOGIES OF ENHANCING DEGRADATION

    Stabilization means that the environmental performance measurement parameters (LFG

    composition, generation rate and leachate constituent concentrations) remain at steady levels and

    should not increase in the event of any partial system failures beyond 5 to 10 years of bioreactor

     process implementation.

    The effects of the following technologies are evaluated according to these aspects.

    4.1. Leachate Re-circulation And Moisture Control

    Moisture control, including moisture content and movement is essential for landfill

    operation. Through leachate re-circulation, liquid movement distributes the inocula, minimizes

    local shortages of nutrients, provides better contact between insoluble substances, soluble

    nutrients and the microorganisms, dilutes potential toxins and transfers heat.

    4.2. Inocula Addition

    Municipal sewage sludge, animal manure, septic tank sludge and old MSW have been

    recommended as potential inocula. The addition of sludge to MSW have both positive and

    negative effects in biodegradation. Leachate re-circulation with pH control and sludge seeding

    enhances biological stabilization of organic pollutants in the leachate and increases the biogasgeneration rates over a span of few months rather than years.

    4.3. Particle Size

    The waste shredding could lead to rapid oxygen utilization, increase rate of waste

    decomposition and lead to early methane production. MSW shredding to particle size in the

    range of 250 to350 mm produced 32% more methane after 90 days than MSW with 100 to 150

    mm particle sizes; and 100 to 150 mm particle sizes produced 16 times as much methane as a

    finely shredded MSW of less than 25 mm particle size.

    4.4. Temperature Control

    Optimum higher temperatures results in faster rates of gas production and refuse

    stabilization. In conventional landfills without leachate re-circulation, stabilization occurs at 25-

    30 degrees, whereas in bioreactor landfill, leachate re-circulation increases the temperature and

    stabilization occurs at35-40 degrees.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    42/341

    Environment Observer Page 32

    4.5 Lift Design

    MSW is usually disposed off in 2 or 3 lifts with or without daily covers. Increased MSW

    compaction reduces the ease with which moisture can move through the waste. Application of

    daily or intermediate cover of low permeability can lead to horizontal movement of leachate and

     potential for leachate ponding or side seeps. Hence, though a lift design without a daily cover issuggested, in an actual bioreactor landfill, daily cover is used to improve the access to the

    landfill, reduce blowing away of waste, reduce odours, reduce the health risks and reduce the

     potential for landfill fires.

    5. WASTE SETTLEMENT

    After MSW is disposed of in the landfills, the thickness of the waste layer decreases with

    time because of the biodegradation process. The waste composition and the biodegradation

     process has great variations throughout the entire mass of the landfill. Hence the landfill

    settlement follows a non-uniform pattern. Differential settlement of the waste can cause great

    devastation to ant structure erected on the landfill . It can also lead to problems such as surface

     ponding, development of cracks and failure of cover system, including tearing of geomembrane

    and damage of gas collection and drainage pipe. Hence the ability to predict settlement becomes

    a key issue in the design and construction of landfills. Soil consolidation theory alone cannot be

    employed for settlement analysis as the biodegradation processes are critical factors affecting

    landfill settlement. Theoretically, waste decomposition can cause settlement in the order of 30 to

    40% of the original landfill depth, and on an average, settlement of about 15 to 20% of the

    original landfill depth is expected due to waste decomposition.

    6. SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS 

    Waste stability is a critical component of bioreactor design. The addition of significant

    amounts of liquids increases the total weight of the waste mass and affects the structural

    characteristics of the waste mass. The addition of liquids adds weight to the waste mass but does

    not contribute to increased shear strength. During liquid recirculation, pore pressures and fluid

    volumes decrease and waste shear strength changes should be accounted for in the design.Selected shear strength values are needed for the waste, liner system interfaces and subgrade.

    These values are significant for calculating the factor of safety against failure since they

    ultimately represent the stabilizing forces of the landfill.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    43/341

    Environment Observer Page 33

    7. ADVANTAGES OF BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS 

      Enhance the LFG generation rates.

      Leachate quality and environmental impact.

      Production of end product that does not need land filling.

      Overall reduction of landfilling cost.

      Reduction in leachate treatment capital and operating cost.

      Reduction in the post closure care and maintenance.

      Overall reduction of the contaminating life span of landfill. 

    8. CONCLUSIONS

    Bioreactor landfills are MSW landfills that provide favourable conditions for microbes to

     biologically stabilize waste within a relatively short period of time. During stabilization, wastemass is lost through the production of landfill gas. The resulting landfill mass, consisting of non

     biodegradable waste (metal, plastic, glass) as well as residual biodegradable materials, will settle,

    decreasing volume of placed material.  Leachate re-circulation, inocula addition, control on

     particle size, proper lift design and temperature control can lead to more rapid waste

    decomposition, stabilization and settlement. Waste settlement analysis is very critical for the

    design and operation of bioreactor landfills. The stability of the slopes also plays an important

    role in the design of bioreactor landfills. 

    The main advantages of the bioreactor landfills include proper treatment of leachate,

    enhancing the gas production and accelerated waste stabilization. There are some limitations to

    this technology. The re-circulation of leachate increases the water head on the bottom liner which

    may enhance the leakage of leachate. Also, the addition of air in aerobic bioreactors increases the

    chances of fire compared to the conventional landfills, these require more construction and

    operation costs. There are currently more than three thousand bioreactors in the United States.

    As compared to many developed countries, the concept of bioreactor landfill operation is still

    relatively very new to India. Currently, Delhi has a bioreactor landfill that has a capacity of 6000

    tons per day

    9. REFERENCES

    1. Krishna R Reddy (2006), "Geotechnical Aspects Of Bioreactor Landfills",Geoindex, pp79-94.

    2. M.Wraith, X.Li and H.Jin (2005), "Bioreactor Landfills: State-Of-The-Art Review",  Emirates Journal For

     Engineering Research, Vol. 10(I), pp 1-14.

    3. M.A.Wraith (2003), "Solid Waste Management: New Trends In Landfill Design",  Emirates Journal For

     Engineering Research, Vol. 8(I), pp 61-70.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    44/341

    Environment Observer Page 34

    Polymer Sponge Assisted Bacterial Digestion method for Municipal

    Solid Waste Management

    Geevarghese George

    B. Tech Student, 

    Department of Polymer Science and Engineering,CUSAT, Cochin

    e-mail Id: [email protected] 

    Abstract: 

    The major contribution to Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) in India is from Plastics

    and Organic materials. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits,

    the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition

    changing. There are different categories of waste generated, each take their own

    time to degenerate. Organic materials may take up to three weeks for degradation

    and Plastics may take up to one million years (data from National Solid Waste Association of

    India).

    There is no direct process that helps in biological degradation of these waste materials,

    especially the volume of plastic waste produced such as PET bottles and PE carry bags, when it

    comes to waste management. This led to the research on biological mechanisms using

    easily cultivatable bacteria as an aid to biodegrade both polymers and organic materials.

    The research involves the cultivation of several colonies of bacteria capable of digesting

     polymers and organic waste; the development of a single/combination of biodegradable

     polymer system capable of providing required conditions for the growth of the microbes.

    This system aims to aid the biodegradation of approximately 70% of the total

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) composition in India. This research method

    involves the use of a patented technology for the manufacture of micro-pored

     polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA) based thin

    (micro scale) sponge layers, which acts as the medium of separation

     between the outer environment and the isolated system, within which the

    degradation takes place. ―Plastic Eating‖ microbes, were developed by a group of 12th  grade

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    45/341

    Environment Observer Page 35

    students at Magee Secondary School, British Columbia in 2013. The mechanisms followed by

    the Plastic Eating microbes were studied and the conditions for growth of the latter type of

    microbes were provided within the system, which degrades waste contained in the system.

      Key Words: Biopolymers, PVA, pHEMA, plastic eating bacteria, waste management,

    water absorption, water retraction. 

      Introuction: 

    Microorganisms are microscopic organisms of single celled or multi celled structure including

     bacteria, algae, and fungi. The only microorganism that we are interested in this research

     paper is a class of microbe called bacteria. They may be defined as a kingdom

    of prokaryotic microorganisms, i.e. microorganisms that lack a membrane bound

    nucleus, they are considered vital in recycling nutrients, putrification etc, in short

    they help sustain life! They are found to inhabit in soil, water, radioactive

    wastes, plants and animals, they can survive even at the deepest part of earth‘s oceans –   the

    Marina Trench.

    Bacteria may be again classified into Aerobic- that requires oxygen for growth - or

    Anaerobic-that does not require oxygen for growth- types. These bacterial types

    are considered capable of degrading both polymers and organic materials by enzyme

    attack at the chemical bonds, which is utilized in this research. An anaerobic

     bacterium needs an oxygen scarce environment for their growth and propagation.

    This may be done in laboratories using Glove box technique in a reducing

    medium. But, this research involves the use of a method similar to anaerobic microbial

    growth used in landfills.

    In this research, a certain class of aerobic/anaerobic bacteria is cultivated in a system to aid the

    degradation of major contributors to MSW. The major misconception among environmentalists

    is that polymer/plastic products are the main contributors to environmental pollution.The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that only 13% of the MSW is from plastic

     products and 60% from organic wastes. It is still unclear to many that plastics can be of

    Biodegradable or Non-Biodegradable types depending on the degradability of the polymer.

  • 8/18/2019 Medio Ambiente Observador - Seminario Nacional Sobre Medio Ambiente Verde

    46/341

    Environment Observer Page 36

    This research introduces a new technique which makes use of industrial quality biodegradable

     plastic sponge and predetermined classes of bacterium together to degrade all plastics branded as

    non-biodegradable. The plastic sponge layer used in this method functions as a water absorber as

    well as a water retention medium, while providing an environment for the growth of bacteria in

    it.

    Biodegradable polymers used to manufacture the sponges break down and lose their initial

    integrity, depending on the surrounding environment in which the polymer is placed at. They ate

    considered non-toxic, capable of maintaining good mechanical integrity until degraded, and

    capable of controlled rates of degradation. These polymers are normally synthesized by ring

    opening polymerization, while leaving provision for biomedical engineers to tailor the polymer

    for slow degradation.

    A typical waste management system i