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7/31/2019 Nociones de albañilería http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/nociones-de-albanileria 1/387 Epbhae{ ~o nqs~al cn hosn{hl{ K[HALBEDN - ALOQS[^AAHÑO - CNAL[EAHÑO - DE[CHON[ÍE y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q ¨ B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

Nociones de albañilería

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    Epbhae{ ~onqs~al cn hosn{hl{

    K[HALBEDN - ALOQS[ AAHO - CNAL[EAHO - DE[CHON[E

    y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

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    J N [ [ E M H N O S E Q X M E S N [ H E B N Q

    Jn{{emhnoseq x mesn{hebnq5

    y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

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    3/387y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

    ; P{npe{e{ be q~pn{fhahn

    Eosnq cn nmpnte{ e phose{" alovhnon p{lsnin{ blq an{alq cn p~n{seq x vnoseoeq alo ahose cn ae{{lan{l/Be ahose qn {nsh{e eosnq cn u~n nb nqs~al u~ncn slsebmnosn qnal/

    A L O Q N D L

    Nb nqs~al qn p~ncn epbhae{ qlk{na~ebu~hn{ q~pn{fhahn cn xnql" mecn{e"ae{so l phnc{e" qhnmp{n u~n qnealoqhqsnosn/

    Pe{e aloqni~h{ ~oe q~pn{fhahn{ni~be{" p{lancn{ alml qhi~n4

    ^shbhteocl ~o {lchbbl" epbhae{ ~oe meolcn hmp{hmeaho qnbbecl{e qlk{n s lce beq~pn{fhahn u~n qn ve e phose{/

    5

    Bhde{ s lce be pe{nc alo ~o pbhnil cn bhdecn i{eol fhol jeqse lksnon{ ~oeq~pn{fhahn bhqe x p~bhce/

    1

    Cnde{ qnae{ 5; jl{eq x ce{ ~oe qni~oce meol cn hmp{hmeahoqnbbecl{e/

    ;

    Sepe{ alo meqhbbe slclq blq l{hfhahlqu~n jexeo plchcl u~nce{ cnqp~q cn

    epbhae{ be qnbbecl{e/

    3

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    4/387y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

    Epbhae{ ~oe sn{an{e meol cn qnbbecl{e qlk{n slce be q~pn{fhahn/>

    Bhde{ be pe{nc alo ~oe beoe cn ean{l cn i{eol fhol jeqse lksnon{~oe q~pn{fhahn bhqe x qho loc~beahlonq/

    P{npe{e{ khno be q~pn{f hahn nq m~x hmpl{s eosn pl{u~n" cn bl alos {e{hl"a~eocl bbni~n nb mlmnosl cn k{~h{ nb nqs~al" qn plsnoahe{o slclqblq cnfnaslq u~n snoie be pe{nc/

    6

    Epbhae{ nb nqs~al1

    Eech{ eb nqs~al ~o shosn nqpnaheb pe{enqs~al" cnb albl{ alo nb u~n qn jexecnahchcl phose{ be pe{nc/

    5

    Nzsnocn{ ~oe aepe fhoe cn nqs~al qlk{nslce be pe{nc alo ~oe bbeoe cn ean{lholzhcekbn /

    ;

    Epbhae{ ~oe qni~oce aepe qlk{n be q~pn{fhahn eo jmnce jeahnoclmlvhmhnos lq alo be bbeoe cn e{{hke ekedl x no cheiloeb/

    [npnsh{ nqse lpn{eaho seoseq vnanq alml qne onanqe{hl jeqselks non{ ~oe q~pn{fhahn bl mq almpease x bhqe plqhkbn/

    1

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    5/387y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

    Nqpes~be{3

    K{~h{>

    Epbhae{ meoajeq cnb mhqml nqs~alqlk{n be q~pn{fhahn ~oe vnt qnae bep{hmn{e meol/

    5

    Pe{e lksnon{ mq l mnolq alos{eqsn no nb nqs~aecl" ve{he{ beaeoshcec cn s hosn u~n qn hoal{pl{e e be mntabe" qnio qne nb nf nas lu~n qn u~hn{e aloqni~h{/

    ;

    Epbhae{ ~oe meol cn an{e s{eoqpe{nosn qlk{n be q~pn{fhahn x k{~h{alo ~o s {epl cn ebilco" nfnas~eocl mlvhmhnos lq ah{a~be{nq/

    ;

    F{lse{ alo ~oe nqps~be cn ekedl e{{hkes lce be q~pn{f hahn pe{e lks non{ nb k{hbblqnclql ae{easn{qshal cn nqsn eaekecl/

    5

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    S{~alq x aloqndlq6

    y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

    -Nb eaekecl fhoeb cnpnocn{ qhnmp{n cn bl bhqe u~n qn jexe cndecl p{nvhemnosn be q~pn{fhahn" cn ej u~n qne hmp{nqahochkbn bli{e{ ~oe pn{fnase pbeonhcec/

    -Pe{e aloqni~h{ ~o mexl{ alos {eqsn no nb chk~dl cnb nqs~al qn cnkn f{lse{ alo be nqps~be aece vnt u~n qn epbhu~n ~oe meol cn nqs~al/

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    Plon{ ~oaeoebo

    cn PVA

    K[HALBEDN - ALOQS[ AAHO - CNAL[EAHO - DE[CHON[E

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    Meoi~hsl

    Alcl

    S~kl

    Cn{hveahoqhmpbn

    Kedeosnalo alcle cn{naje

    Ek{etecn{e

    oi~blnzsn{hl{

    Cnqeinanos{eb Aeoebo

    ^ohoQlpl{sn cn

    aeoebo

    AeoeboSepe

    Meoi~hsl

    Kedecenzsn{hl{

    htu~hn{ce

    E{u~nse

    Sepe cn{nihqs{l

    Nb cnqe{{lbbl cn ~o aeoebo cnpno-cn cn be q~pn{fhahn cnb febco cnbsndecl/

    Febco

    Nbnmnoslq cn ~o aeoebo5

    Nbnaaho cnb cnqe{{lbbl

    cnb aeoebo

    ;

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    nqa~ec{emns{l

    esl{ohbbecl{

    nqaebn{e l eocemhl

    bhme

    me{shbbl x abevlq

    klse pe{es{ete{ *ehb(

    pblmece

    sebec{l

    ohvnb cn k~{k~de

    e{al cn qhn{{e cn mnseb

    Jn{{emhnoseq1J N [ [ E M H N O SE Q

    Chqshoslq shplq cn fhdeaho3Nbnih{ nb shpl cn fhdeaho mq ecna~ece e beq ae{easn{qshaeq cnb

    sndecl/

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    Ieoajl alo nqs{hkl pe{e snde " pe{e~oe alblaeaho qlk{n snde vlbece/

    Ieoajl alo nqs{hkl pe{e pbeae cn

    fhk{lanmnosl " pe{e q~ alblaeahoqlk{n s nde cn ajepe loc~bece/

    Cnsn{mhoe{ nb b~ie{ cnb aeoe-bo cn meon{e u~n qn {nalde s lclnb ei~e e nvea~e{/

    Alo be ex~ce cn ~oe pblmece"cnsn{mhoe{ nb b~ie{ cn blq cnqe-

    inq pe{e qhs~e{blq bl mq vn{sh-aebmnosn plqhkbn alo {nqpnasl ebeq e{u~nseq cn nvea~eaho/Cnsn{mhoe{ blq oi~blq u~n qneop{nahqlq/Pe{e feahbhse{ be nvea~eaho cnbei~e" blq nbnmnos lq qn alblaeo alo~oe hoabhoeaho mnche cn > mm

    pl{ mns{l *hoabhoeaho u~n cnkn-{o cnfhoh{ blq ieoajlq fhdeclq(Aece cnqein ol cnkn {nalin{ nbae~ceb cn mq cn 5; m cn aeoebo/

    Fhde{ nb ieoajl cn be pe{snmq ebndece cnb cnqein bl mqebsl plqhkbn/

    S{ete{ ~oe bone jl{htloseb"alo be ex~ce cnb al{cnb cn me{ae{x ~o ohvnb" cnqcn nb ieoajl jeqsenb b~ie{ cnqshoecl eb cnqein/Aeba~be{ be hoabhoeaho x me{ae{ nbieoajl cnb cnqein/

    Fhde{ blq ieoajlq hos n{mnchlqqhi~hnocl be hoabhoeaho x alo~o qnpe{eaho cn 30 am almlmzhml/^shbhte{ ~oe mlbc~{e besn{eb pe{e{nfl{te{ nb qlpl{sn qh be qnpe{e-aho cn 30 amol p~ncn qn{{nqpnsece/

    Qnosh cl cnnvea~eaho

    cnb ei~e

    E = mzhml 30 amE

    Cnsn{mhoe{ nbs{etecl cnb aeoebo>

    6

    3

    1

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    ;

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    Chqplon{ blq nbnmnoslq cnbaeoebo no nb q~nbl /

    Al{se{ blq pn{fhbnq e blq seme-lq ecna~eclq/

    D~ose{ blq nbnmnos lq noaedo-clblq *no nb aeql cn blq aeoeblonqalo d~oseq( l alo albe nqpnahebpe{e PVA *no nb aeql cn aeoeblonqpe{e noalbe{(/

    No nqsn bshml aeql" bhde{ beq pe{-snq e noalbe{/

    Q~dnse{ nb aeoebo qlk{n blqieoajlq" p{hmn{l nb nqs{hkl cnes{q *e( x cnqp~q {nkede{ nb{nkl{cn *k(/

    Fhde{ blq ieoajlq cnkedl cn beq d~oseq/

    Plon{ be sepe cnb aeoebo/

    ^shbhte{ alclq noaedeclq no Qpe{e nobete{ beq kedeosnq" u~nh{o q~dnseq e be pe{nc" alo nbaeoebo/

    ^shbhte{ be pblmece x be nqa~e-c{e pe{e bbnve{ be ebhoneaho vn{sh-aeb qlk{n nb m~{l/

    P{nqnose{ blq alclq mloseclq

    S{ete{ nb b~ie{ cn beq ls{eq ek{e-tecn{eq cnkedl cn aece alonzhocnb s~kl" {nqpnseocl hosn{veblqcn ep{lzhmecemnos n ~o mns{l /

    e

    k

    Hoqsebeaho cn blqnbnmnoslq jl{htlosebnq

    6

    5

    ;

    1

    3

    >

    6

    Hoqsebeaho cn beq kedeosnq9

    1

    5

    ;

    1

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    Qh nb sndecl nqs qhs~ecl an{ae cn{klbnq" alovhnon hoqsebe{ ~oe {ndhbbepe{e p{nvnoh{ be lkqs{~aaho cn beqkedeosnq pl{ ea~m~beaho cn beq jldeqcn blq {klbnq/

    No nb aeql cn ~oe aloqs{~aaho qhs~e-ce e ~oe ebshs~c pl{ noahme cn 800mns{lq" lpse{ pl{ ~o aeoebo cnmns eb" xe u~n nb PVA qn p~ncn {lmpn{qh je cn qlpl{s e{ jhnbl c~{eos n be{ilqpn{lclq/

    Fhde{ beq ek{etecn{eq eb m~{l aloml{sn{l cn qnbbecl l alo sealq/ Beqkedeosnq x cnqvheahlonq jeo cn nqse{chqp~nqseq e ~olq ; am cnb m~{l/

    Alonase{ be kedeosn e be e{u~nseqho qnbbe{be pe{e pn{mhsh{ ~o alos{lb{ni~be{ cn be nvea~eaho/Nqse qn {nebhte{ jeahe ls{e e{u~nse"tloe cn c{noedn" cnqein l jeahe ~oqhqsnme cn {na~pn{eaho cn beq ei~eqcn bb~vhe/

    Ek{etecn{e Ek{etecn{e

    E{u~nse

    Alclqnoaedeclq

    no + Q+M~{l

    ; am

    5 m

    3

    >

    S{~alq x aloqndlq:Ejl{{n {na~pn{eocl nb ei~e cn be bb~vhe///

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    Ebhaese{alo kebclqeq

    an{mhaeq

    K[HALBEDN - ALOQS[ AAHO - CNAL[EAHO - DE[CHON[E

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    Jn{{emhnoseq5PE [ E B E P [ N PE [ E A H O

    PE [E BE AL B L AE AH O

    ohvnb cn k~{k~de mns{l

    klse pe{e s{ete{ *ehb(

    bpht

    {nibe

    a{~anseq

    bbeoecnosece

    snoeteq cnebhaesecl{ epbeoecl{

    mete cn ilme

    bbeoe cnilme

    a~kl

    nqplode

    ievnse

    pebnse

    al{secl{an{mhal

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    Qlpl{sn Ecjnqhvl-M~{lq nof lqaeclq Ml{sn{l albe alovnoahloebcn e{noe x anmnosl-M~{lq alo nob~ahclcn xnql s{echahloeb Ml{sn{l albe nqpnaheb xnql-Sekhu~nq cn peonbnqcn nqaexlbe-Ebhaeseclq eoshi~lq-Sekhu~nq cn peonbnqcn ae{so-xnql Peqse ecjnqhve-Q~pn{fhahnq phos eceq-Mecn{e Hmp{hmeaho ' peqse ecjnqhve

    -Phqahoeq Ml{sn{l albe nqpnaheb phqahoeq-Blaebnq jmnclq Ml{sn{l nplzh cn clq almplonosnq-A~ebu~hn{ qlpl{sn

    Nqalin{ qhnmp{n ~o ecjnqhvl ep{lphecl" no f~oaho cnb qlpl{-sn qlk{n nb u~n qn ve e s{ekede{ x cnb shpl cn kebclqeq/

    Ecjnqhvlq;

    P{lc~aslq pe{e be alblaeaho1

    HMP[HMEAHO BHIEOSN

    Qn epb hae alo ~o {l ch bb l l ~oanphbbl eosnq cn be aepe ohvnbecl-{e *a~eocl nq onanqe{he(" l khno"eosnq cn pnie{ beq kebclqeq/Pe{e q~pn{fhahnq qho ekql{aho qnepbhae ~oe hmp{hmeaho cn ecjn

    Almplonosn cn ebi~olq ml{sn-{lq albe u~n {nf~n{te q~ ecjn-{noahe x q~ f bnzhkhbhcec/

    Blq ml{sn{lq albe fbnzhkbnq lcnfl{mekbnq ekql{kno beq ve{he

    KEBCLQEQ CN I[NQ NQMEBSECL

    KEBCLQEQ CN I[NQ PL[ANBOHALQlpl{sn Ecjnqhvl-A~ebu~hn{ qlpl{sn Ml{sn{l albe cn bhieosnq mhzs lq

    *nqpnaheb pl{anbohal(

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    [npe{e{ blq cnqpn{fnas lq cn bepe{nc/ Qh nb cnqohvnb cn be pe{ncq~pn{e blq > mm" qn{ onanqe{hl{nebhte{ ~o {nvlu~n alo ~o ml{s n-{l mlolaepe/

    Qh nb qlpl{sn nq cnmeqheclpl{lql" ce{ ~oe meol cn hmp{hme-aho sepepl{lq eosnq cn epbhae{ nbecjnqhvl/ Pl{ nb alos{e{hl" qh qns{ese cn kebclqeq nqmebseceq ~ls{e q~pn{fhahn qho ekql{aho"nmpbne{ ~oe hmp{hmeaho cnecjn{noahe/

    NOB^AHCL L [NVLU^N ML[SN[L PE[E D OSEQ

    Ml{s n{l no plbvl u~n" mntabeclno ei~e" pn{mhsn hi~ebe{ x ebhqe{be q~pn{fhahn cn be pe{nc eosnq cn

    alblae{ beq kebclqeq/

    Qn epbhae alo ~oe bbeoe cn ilmex qh{vn pe{e {nbbnoe{ nb nqpeahlnzhqsnosn nos{n beq kebc lqeq

    *d~ose(/

    P{npe{eaho cnb qlpl{sn3No slclq blq aeqlq" nb qlpl{sn shnon u~n nqse{ pbeol" qnal xqeol/

    ;

    5

    5

    ;

    S{etecl>

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    ;;

    Alo ~oe pblmece" s{ete{ semkho~oe bone vn{shaeb u~n qn{vh{ cni~e pe{e nb e{{eou~n cn aece fhbecn kebclqeq/

    Alblae{ ~o bhqso cn mecn{e emlcl cn {nibe pl{ cnkedl cn bebone jl{htlos eb/ Qn{vh{ cn qlpl{-sn pe{e be p{hmn{e fhbe cn kebclqequ~n qn alblu~no/

    Qh nb q~nbl nqs no pnochnosn" qnal{se{o beq kebclqeq cn be p{hmn{efhbe" d~osl eb q~nbl" x qn cnde{onosn{eq beq cn be bshme fhbe" d~osleb snajl/

    1

    Epbhaeaho cnb ecjnqhvlx alblaeaho6

    Nzsnocn{ nb ecjnqhvl qlk{n bepe{nc alo be bbeoe cnosece/ S{ekede{pl{ pelq cn ~ol e clq mns{lq a~ec{e-clq" alml mzhml/^shbhte{ ~oe pebnse pe{e peqe{ nb ecjn-qhvl cnb klsn l cn be ievnse e be bbeoe/

    55

    Albl { b {h { fhb k b l;

    1

    bshme fhbe

    eoajl cn be d~ose

    kebclqeqal{seceq

    q~nbl no pnochnosn

    Ed~qse{ be ebs~{e cn nqse bonejl{htloseb cn fl{me u~n ol jexeu~n jean{ al{snq no be bshme fhbecn kebclqeq" d~os l eb s najl /^shbhteocl nb mns{l" l me{aeocl

    alo ~oe kebclqe" nbnih{ be qlb~ahomq nqsshae x alo mnolq al{snq/ Ebe jl{e cn aeba~be{" ol lbvhce{ nbeoajl cn beq d~oseq u~n jex u~ncnde{ nos{n beq kebclqeq/

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    Pe{e aloqni~h{ u~n beq d~oseqnos{n beq kebclqeq qneo {ni~be{nq"alblae{ beq a{~anseq e mnchce u~nqn veo pnieocl beq kebclqeq/Ep{lvnaje{ semkho pe{e h{ nbhmh-

    oeocl nb nzanql cn ecjnqhvl u~nqebie pl{ be d~os e/

    Almp{lke{ be pbeonhcec cn beq~pn{fhahn ebhaesece alblaeocl nbohvnb l nb epbeoecl{ qlk{n ve{heqkebclqeq eb mhqml shnmpl/

    Qh ~oe kebclqe qlk{nqebn" ilbpne{beq~evnmnosn alo be mete cn ilme/

    Alosho~e{ pnieocl kebclqeq"vn{hfhaeocl be jl{htlosebhcec x bevn{s haebhcec no aece fhbe/

    ^oe vnt u~n qn je a~khn{sl bepe{nc alo kebclqeq jeqse nb snajl"{nsh{e{ be {nibe cn mecn{e x sn{mh-oe{ pnieocl be fhbe cn kebclqeq

    d~os l eb q~nbl/[nsh{e{ beq a{~anseq eosnq cn u~n nbecjnqhvl qn qnu~n pl{ almpbnsl/

    S{eoqa~{{hceq ;3 jl{eq cnqp~q

    cn be alblaeaho" epbhae{ ~o ml{sn{lpe{e d~oseq/ ^shbhteocl ~oe bbeoe cnilme" {nbbnoe{ beq d~os eq" nzsnochno-cl nb p{lc~as l no cheiloeb x p{nqhl-oeocl be meqe qlk{n nbbeq/

    H{ s{ekedeocl pl{ pelq cn ;

    1

    3

    6

    1

    3

    >

    6

    [nd~osecl95

    ;

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    Pe{e blq al{snq {naslq4 ~shbh-te{ ~oe al{secl{ an{mhal/

    Pe{e mndl{e{ be nqsshae cnbebhaesecl" beq kebclqeq al{seceqcnkno qhs~e{qn d~osl eb q~nbl lno blq {hoalonq *tloeq mnolqvhqhkbnq cn be jekhseaho(/Pl{ nb alos{e{hl" beq nqu~hoeq qna~k{h{o qhnmp{n alo kebclqeqnos n{eq e emklq beclq/

    Nmpbne{ aeoslon{eq l pn{-fhbnq cn PVA pe{e {nmese{ beq

    nqu~hoeq/

    Pe{e blq al{snq a~{vlq4 chk~- de{ be bone cn al{sn qlk{n be keb-c lqe x p{ l sn in{be a lo ahoseecjnqhve" pe{e nvhse{ eq u~n qncnqpl{shbbn nb nqmebsn/ Alo nbsebec{l x ~oe k{lae cn yhche" h{jeahnocl ei~dn{lq qlk{n be bonechk~dece/E alosho~eaho h{ ceocl pnu~n-lq ml{chqalq alo beq snoeteq cnebhaesecl{ jeqse bbnie{ e be bone

    Al{sn cn kebclqeq:

    3

    5

    ;

    5

    ;

    1

    3

    {hoaokebclqeq al{seceq

    nqu~hoekebclqeq nosn{eq

    1 m~{l

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    Eosnq cn hoqsebe{ beq kebclqeq"

    mntabe{ beq cn ~olq peu~nsnq xls {lq" cn ae{e e lksnon{ ~o {npe{-s l ~ohf l{mn cnb s lol/

    Nzhqsn ml{sn{l pe{e d~oseq cnchfn{nosnq albl{nq/ Albl{ne{ beq

    d~oseq pn{mhsn ce{bn ~o eqpnas lmq pn{qloeb eb ebhaesecl x e{ml-

    ohte{bl alo nb nqshbl cnal{eshvl cnbe jekhs eaho/

    Be bhmphnte cnb ebhaesecl qn {nebh-te alo ei~e x ~o cnsn{inosn olek{eqhvl x ol i{eql/ E alosho~e-aho qn nod~eie alo ei~e abe{e/Eosnq cn ebhaese{ p{lsnin{ blq

    qeohse{hlq cn beq plqhkbnq qebphae-c~{eq cn ecjnqhvl x cn ml{sn{lpe{e d~oseq/

    Al{snq alo fl{meq nqpnahebnq4

    A~eocl jex u~n nfnas~e{ al{snqa~{vlq l alo fl{meq nqpnahebnqqlk{n ~oe kebclqe" qn p~ncn ~shbh-te{ ~oe qhn{{e cn aebe{ alo ~oejlde nqpnaheb pe{e an{mhae/

    Pe{e blq al{snq ah{a~be{nq" qn p~n-cno nmpbne{ qhn{{eq cn al{loe

    u~n qn ecepseo eb s ebec{l x nqsochqplohkbnq no chqshoslq chmn-s{lq/

    Seos l nb sebec{l alml be qhn{{e cnaebe{ u~n qn ~shbhano cnkn{onqse{ p{lvhqslq cn ~o {ni~becl{cn vnblahcec nbnas {ohal/ Qh be

    vnblahcec cn be mu~hoe ol qnp~ncn {ni~be{" qn al{{n nb {hnqilcn cnsn{hl{e{ be kebclqe/

    ^shbhte{ anonf eq" sealq" mlbc~{eq x ls {eq phnteq an{mhaeq no almkhoe-aho alo beq kebclqeq" qh{vn pe{e pn{qloebhte{ nb ebhaesecl x qhnmp{nmndl{e nb nfnas l cnal{es hvl/

    S{~alq x aloqndlq8

    Phnteq nqpnahebnq50

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    Qlbe{alo kebclqeq

    an{mhaeq

    K[HALBEDN - ALOQS[ AAHO - CNAL[EAHO - DE[CHON[E

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    Jn{{emhnoseq5

    ms{n

    PE [ E B E P [ N PE [ E A H O

    ohvnb cn k~{k~demns{l

    bpht

    {nibe

    klse pe{e s{ete{ *ehb(

    nqa~ec{e

    bbeoe

    qne~

    ploin

    e~in

    PE [E BE AL B L A E A H O

    a{~anseq

    bbeoecnosece

    snoeteq cnebhaesecl{ epbeoecl{

    mete cn ilme

    bbeoe cnilme

    a~kl

    nqplode

    ievnse

    al{secl{e cnan{mhae

    {lchbbn{eq

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    Qlk{n ~o q~nbl cn jl{mhio

    Bhmph e{ nb eos h i~ l pevhmnos l

    an{mhal alo ~oe eqph{ecl{e xf{nie{ alo ei~e x cnsn{inos n/Qh beq kebclqeq eoshi~eq qlonqmebseceq" epbhae{ ~oe hmp{hme-aho cn ecjn{noahe/Qh nb q~nbl p{ nqnos e h{ {ni~ be{h -cecnq" {npe{e{bl x ebhqe{bl alo~oe peqse ohvnbecl{e/

    Qlk{n kebclqeq eoshi~eq

    [ei{ein

    Albbn

    Eoahnoae{{nbein

    P{hmeh{n

    Alblaeaho 4 ^shbhte{ ~o ml{sn{lalbe x ~o ml{sn{l pe{e d~oseq"ecna~eclq e beq ae{easn{qshaeq cnbeq kebclqeq/

    Bhmphe{ be qlbn{e alo ~oe eqph{e-cl{e x f{nie{ alo ei~e x cnsn{-inosn/Epbhae{ ~oe hmp{hmeaho" no aeqlonanqe{hl/ Qh nb q~nbl p{nqnoseh{{ni~be{hcecnq" {npe{e{bl x ebh-qe{bl alo ~oe peqse ohvnbecl{e/

    Alblaeaho4 ^shbhte{ ~o ml{sn{lalbe pe{e fhde{ beq kebclqeq" p{la~-{eocl a{~te{ beq d~os eq cn beq o~n-veq kebclqeq alo beq cn beq eosh-i~eq/ [nd~ose{ alo ~o ml{sn{lpe{e d~oseq/

    Bhmphe{ nb q~nbl alo ~oe eqph{e-cl{e x f{nie{ alo ei~e x cnsn{-inosn/Epbhae{ ~oe hmp{hmeaho" no aeqlonanqe{hl/ Qh nb q~nbl p{nqnoseh{{ni~be{hcecnq" {npe{e{bl x ebh

    Qlk{n ~o q~nbl cn mecn{e

    Shplq cn alblaeaho nof~oaho cnb qlpl{sn

    ;

    kebclqeq o~nveq

    d~ose ecjnqhvlaepeohvnbecl{e

    hmp{hmeaho

    qlbn{e cnjl{mhio

    kebclqeq o~nveq

    d~ose ecjnqhvl

    aepeohvnbecl{e

    hmp{hmeaho

    kebclqeqeoshi~eq

    kebclqeq o~nveq

    ecjnqhvl d~oseaepeohvnbecl{e

    hmp{hmeaho

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    P{lc~aslq pe{e be alblaeaho1

    HMP[HMEAHO BHIEOSN

    ML[SN[L PE[E D OSEQ

    Qn epbhae alo ~o {l ch bb l l ~oanphbbl eos nq cn be aepe ohvnbecl-{e *a~eocl nq onanqe{he(" l khno"eosnq cn pnie{ beq kebclqeq/Pe{e q~pn{fhahnq qho ekql{aho qnepbhae ~oe hmp{hmeaho cn ecjn-{noahe7 pe{e beq nzanqhvemnosnpl{lqeq" ~oe hmp{hmeaho sepe-pl{lq/ Qh nb qlpl{sn nq chqi{n-iekbn" qn ~shbhte ~oe hmp{hmeahonoc~{nancl{e/No blq s{nq aeqlq" be hmp{hmeahomndl{e be ecjn{noahe cn beq keb-clqeq eb qlpl{sn/

    Almplonosn cn ebi~olq ml{sn-{lq albe u~n {nf~n{te q~ ecjn-{noahe x q~ f bnzhkhbhcec/

    Blq ml{sn{lq albe fbnzhkbnq lcnfl{mekbnq ekql{kno beq ve{he-ahlonq chmnoqhloebnq cnb qlpl{sn/

    Qn epbhae alo ~oe bbeoe cn ilmex qn ~shbhte pe{e {nbbnoe{ nb nqpe-ahl nzhqsnosn nos{n beq kebclqeq*d~ose(/

    PEQSE OHVNBECL[E

    Qn epbhae alo be bbeoe x qh{vn pe{elksnon{ ~oe pbeonhcec al{{nasecnb qlpl{s n/

    ML[SN[L ALBE

    Ecjnqhvl no plbvl u~n qn emeqealo ei~e x qn epbhae alo ~oebbeoe cnosece/

    S{etecl3Nb s{etecl qh{vn pe{e pbeohfhae{ cocn x aml qn veo e pnie{ beq keb-clqeq/ D~ieocl alo beq kebclqeq no qnal " qn ve aeba~beocl q~ plqh-aho pe{e aloqni~h{ be qhmns{e cnb alod~osl/ Nq hmpl{seosn qhs~e{ beqkebclqeq nosn{eq no beq tloeq mq vhqhkbnq cn be jekhseaho *no nb~mk{eb cn be p~n{se" pl{ ndnmpbl( x beq al{seceq no blq qhshlq mq chq-a{nslq *d~osl eb {lceph" no nb j~nal cn be vnoseoe" no blq {hoalonq"nsa/(/Be alblaeaho qn hohahe{ qhnmp{n e pe{sh{ cn clq ndnq pn{pnocha~be{nqnos{n q" pe{e nbbl4

    Alo ex~ce cn ~oe a~n{ce"5

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    H{ alblaeocl kebclqeq qhonoalbe{" cnqcn blq ndnq jeqse beqpe{ncnq/Ol lbvhce{ u~n nq p{nahql snon{ noa~nose semkho nb nqpeahl u~n

    la~peo beq d~oseq/

    Nqse fl{me cn alblae{ beq kebclqeqqho ecjnqhvl qn bbeme s{etecl noqnal x pn{mhsn nqalin{ be chqplqh-aho mq nqsshae x lpshmhte{ blqal{snq/

    80

    Qn nmphnte alblaeocl kebclqeqno be pe{nc lp~nqse e be p~n{se

    cn nos{ece cn be jekhseaho/Be p{hmn{e jhbece cn kebclqeqnoalbeceq nqse{ aloqshs~hce pl{kebclqeq nosn{eq/ E alosho~eahoqn alblaeo beq kebclqeq al{seceq

    d ~ o s l e b e p e{ nc *; j h b ec e(/Cnqp~q qn fhde be 1 jhbece xs lceq beq cnmq/

    ;

    ;

    Alblaeaho>

    Epbhaeaho cnb ecjnqhvl6Be fl{me mq qnoahbbe cn fhde{ kebclqeq nq pnie{beq alo ~o ml{sn{lalbe/

    S{ekede{ pl{ pelq cn ~o mns{l a~ec{ecl" ep{lzhmecemnosn"qhi~hnocl nqs lq peqlq4

    5Nzsnocn{ nb ecjnqhvl5

    1 jhbece

    5 jhbece

    ; jhbece

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    Alblae{ beq kebclqeq qlk{n nbecjnqhvl/

    Pe{e fl{meslq hi~ebnq l q~pn{hl{nqe 10 z 10 am" nq p{nahql {nebhte{ ~o

    clkbn noalbecl/Be saohae cnb c lkbn noalbeclaloqhqsn no ~os e{ nb ecjnqhvl no nbq~nbl x no nb {nvn{ql cn be kebclqe/

    ^shbhte{ a{~anseq pe{e u~n beq

    d~oseq nos{n kebclqeq qneo qhnmp{nhi~ebnq/

    Nb eoaj l nbnihcl pe{e be d~osecnpnocn cn beq ae{easn{qshaeq cn bekebclqe nbnihce x cnb nfnasl cnal-{eshvl u~n qn p{nsnoce aloqni~h{/

    H{ almp{lkeocl alo ~o ohvnbbe pbeonhcec cn be q~pn{fhahn emnchce u~n qn alblaeo kebclqeq/

    mete cn ilme beq kebclqeq u~nqlk{nqebno l qn j~ocno jeahnoclp{nqho alo nb epbeoecl{/ Nb epbe-oecl{ qn eplxe qhnmp{n qlk{nve{heq kebclqeq e be vnt/

    [nsh{e{ beq a{~anseq eosnq cnu~n nb ecjnqhvl qn noc~{ntaecnmeqhecl/

    Bhmphe{ blq nzancnosnq cnecjnqhvl nos {n beq kebclqeq/

    Cnde{ qnae{ pl{ nqpeahl cn ;3jl{eq eosnq cn {nbbnoe{ beq d~oseq/

    ;

    1

    3

    ;

    1

    3

    >

    6

    9

    Qn i lb pneo bh in{emnos n alo be

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    Pe{e al{se{ be bshme kebclqe"

    be u~n ve pn iece e be pe{nc4q~pn{plon{be qlk{n be pnobshme xcnqbhte{ ls{e kebclqe pl{ noahmecn nbbe jeqse jean{ slpn alo bepe{nc/S{ete{ be bone cn al{sn" snohnoclno a~nos e nb eoajl cn be d~os e/

    1

    Al{sn95

    ;

    ^sh bh te{ ~oe al{ s ec l{e cnan{mhae pe{e blq al{snq {naslq/5

    ;

    Pe{e nfnas~e{ al{snq ah{a~be{nq4a~k{h{ be bone cn al{sn alo ahose ecjnqh-ve pe{e nvhse{ u~n nb nqmebsn qn cnqpl{-shbbn/ H{ jeahnocl ei~dn{lq no nb alosl{-o l alo ~ o s ebec{ l p{ lvhqs l cn ~oek{lae cn yhche l chemeos n/E a lo sho~eaho" h{ e{{eoaeoc l

    pnu~nlq f{eimnoslq alo beq snoeteqcn ebhaesecl{" jeqse almpbnse{ nb al{sn/Pe{e aloqni~h{ ~o k~no eaekecl" nbhmh-oe{ beq h{{ni~be{hcecnq cnb kl{cn alo~oe bhme/

    1

    [nd~osecl:Jeo s{eoqa~{{hcl ;3 jl{eq cnqcn u~n qn hoqsebe{lo beq kebclqeq x beqa{~anseq qn {nsh{e{lo cn beq d~oseq eosnq cn u~n qn noc~{nahn{e nb

    j h l/ J bb i l b l l { bb { b d /

    eoajl cn be d~ose

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    Pe{e aloqni~h{ ~o {npe{sl jlmlionl cnb albl{" mntabe{ beq kebclqeq

    cn blq chqshos lq peu~nsnq eos nq cn p{lancn{ e hoqsebe{beq" p~nq nb s lolp~ncn ve{he{ bhin{emnosn cn ~o peu~nsn e ls{l/

    Pe{e nb meos nohmhnos l che{hl cn blq q~nblq an{mhalq qn ~s hbhte ei~e x~o cnsn{inos n ol ek{eqhvl/ Eabe{e{ alo ei~e bhmphe/

    ^oe vnt alblaeceq x {nd~oseceq beqkebclqeq" sepe{ be d~ose pn{hmns{ebhoqsebeocl ~o {lceph eb{ncncl{cn slce be jekhs eaho/

    Ol epbhae{ nb ml{sn{l no be d~ose pn{hmns{eb" p~nq nqsn nq ~o nqpeahl cnqshoecl e ekql{kn{ be chbeseaho cn beq kebcl- qeq/ Nqse d~ose u~nce{ cnqp~q slsebmnosn sepece a~eocl qn hoqsebn nb {lceph/

    E S N O A H L O %

    Nb eaekecl8

    S{~alq x aloqndlq50

    S{ekedeoc l p l{ pe lq cn ~omns{l a~ec{ecl" ep{lzhmece-mnosn" nzsnocn{ nb ml{sn{l pe{e

    d ~ o s eq al o b e b b eo e c n i l m ejeqse {nbbnoe{beq slceq no p{l-f~ochcec/ Be peqse eie{{e mndl{a~eocl qn epbhae no mlvhmhnoslqcheiloebnq alo be bbeoe/S{eoqa~{{hclq ~olq mho~slq" pn{fh-be{ beq d~oseq pe{e u~n slceq sno-

    ieo ~oe fl{me {ni~be{ x bhmphe{be q~pn{fhahn pevhmnosece alo~oe nqplode jmnce/

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    jn{{emhnoseq

    mesn{hebnq

    Al{secl{ cn kebclqeq

    Nqps~be cnosece

    Bhme

    Meanse cn ilmeMns{l

    Snoeteq

    Et~bndl

    Anmnosl albe

    Seped~oseq

    peql e peqlBlq noaj~fnq qlo ~ol cn blq p{hoahpebnq lkqsa~-blq u~n jex u~n qebve{ eb ebhaese{/Q a~hceclql no nb al{sn pe{e ol nqs{lpne{ beae{e cnb et~bndl u~n nqs e be vhqse/

    U~hse be sepe nmknbbnancl{e x cnde e be vhqse beaede nmpls{ece/Jex u~n bbnie{ alo blq et~bndlq jeqse nb mhq-ml kl{cn cn be aede/

    Mhcn nb j~nal cnb noaj~fn alo ~o mns{l x m{-aebl no nb et~bndl pe{e {nebhte{ nb al{sn/Sno no a~nose nb nqpeahl u~n cnknq cnde{pe{e beq d~oseq cn blq et~bndlq/[nebhte ~oe pbeoshbbe cn ae{s~bhoe qh nql snqh{vn cn ex~ce/

    [nal{se blq et~bndlq/Me{ae p{hmn{l nb al{sn alo ~o al{secl{ cnkebclqeq x" e alosho~eaho" ~shbhte ~oeq snoeteqpe{e nbhmhoe{ blq f{eimnoslq/Jetbl cn ~oe meon{e a~hceclqe pe{e ol ce-e{ nb {nvnqshmhnosl an{mhal/ P~bn blq kl{cnqalo ~oe bhme/

    Almp{~nke u~n blq et~bndlq qn ecepseo pn{fna-semnosn eb j~nal u~n jex u~n a~k{h{/Jet slclq blq {nkednq onanqe{hlq jeqse u~nqn ealpbno/

    Nzshnocn alo be nqps~be cnosece nb anmnosl albex alblae blq et~bndlq/Shnon u~n u~nce{ eb {eq cn be aede nmpls{ecex eb mhqml ohvnb u~n nb {nqsl cn blq et~bndlq/ shbhte ~oe mete cn ilme pe{e u~n qn ecjhn-{eo pn{fnasemnosn/

    ^oe vnt alblaeclq slclq blq et~bndlq" nqpn{e eu~n qn qnu~no x epbhae nb seped~oseq/Cnknq nqpn{e{ eb mnolq ~o ce" eq sn eqni~-{e{q cn u~n blq et~bndlq qn jeo stdecl khno/

    Bhmphe nb seped~oseq qlk{eosn alo ~o pel j-

    mncl eosnq cn u~n qn noc~{ntae cnb slcl/Mlose cn o~nvl be sepe cnb noaj~fn/

    5

    ;

    1

    EBHAESE[ TLOEQ CHFAHBNQQek{eq aml al{se{ ~o et~bndl pe{e qebve{ ~o noaj~fn qho u~n qn nqs{lpnn nb {nvnqshmhnosl an{

    3

    >

    6

    9

    B n { l x M n { b h o " Q / E / " ; 0 0 3yyy/ b n { l x m n { b h o / n q

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    K[HALBEDN - ALOQS[^AAHO - CNAL[EAHO - DE[CHON

    Alblae{pevhmnoslq

    no nb nzsn{hl{

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    Beq kebclqeq cn ke{{l alahcl

    Be saohae cn alblaeaho cn beq phnc{eq l cn beq kebclqeq qn nbnih{ no

    f~oaho cnb ~ql u~n qn bnq vexe e ce{/Peqnl l sn{{ete

    Sn{{nol nqsekhbhtecl

    Eaanql eb ie{edn l peqnl alos{oqhsl cn vnja~blq

    Qlbn{e cn jl{mhio e{mecl*nqpnql{ cn 50 e 5> am(

    Ph { { b

    Pevhmnoslq pe{e nb de{co5

    ;

    1

    5

    ;

    Saohae cn alblaeaho;

    E~ou~n nzhqsn ~oe i{eo ve{hncec cn mesn{hebnq" nqs lq qlo blqu~n qn ~shbhteo alo mexl{ f{na~noahe4

    5

    Beq kebclqeq cn jl{mhiono chqshoslq eaekeclq4

    - alo q~pn{fhahn cn i{evhbbe

    - cn jl{mhio albl{necl- alo chqshos lq mlshvlq cnal{eshvlq/

    Beq phnc{eq oes ~{ebnq no k{~s l

    1

    Qlpl{sn nzhqsnosn

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    mns{l

    me{shbbl cneclu~hoecl{

    me{sne~cn ae{{nbn~{

    {nibe mns bhae{eqs{hbbl

    pebe

    bexe

    e{noe cn mhie*i{eo~blmns {e 0/>(

    phqo

    inlsnzshb

    ae{{nshbbe

    {niecn{e lmeoi~n{e

    mh{eq cn mecn{e

    {eqs{hbbl cna~es{l chnosnq

    ievnse xpebnse

    bhmphecl{ cnebse p{nqho

    Nq onanqe{hl cnbhmhse{ be q~pn{fhahn

    emlbecl{e

    p~os e pe{e s{ete{

    i~eosnq

    iefeq

    chqalq cnchemeosn

    l pe{emesn{hebnq

    Blq al{snq cn beq kebclqeqqn s{eteo alo ~oe p~osex qn al{seo alo ~oe eml-becl{e p{lvhqse cn ~ochqal cn chemeosn l pe{emesn{hebnq *phnc{e" jl{-mhio l an{mhae(/^shbhte{ qhnmp{n i~eos nqx iefeq cn p{lsnaaho

    pe{e {nebhte{ blq al{snq/

    J N [ [ E M H N O S E Q* P E [ E B E H O Q S E B E A H O Q L K [ N E [ N O E (

    J N [ [ E M H N O S E Q * P E [ E B E H O Q S E B E A H O Q L K [J L [ M H I O E C N M Q C N B E Q E O S N [ H L [ N Q (

    J N [ [ E M H N O S E Q

    * P E [ E A L [ S E [ B E Q P H N C [ E Q L B E Q K E B C L Q E Q

    P{npe{eaho x {npbeosnl1

    me{shbbleclu~hoecl{

    pebe de{chon{e

    mete cnilme

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    Pe{e peqnlq l sn{{eteq alo s{oqhsl pnesloeb

    Hoqsebeaho3Qlk{n bnajl cn e{noe

    Almpease{ nb q~nbl alo ~o phqomeo~eb pe{e u~n ieon no nqsekhbhcec/Qh nb q~nbl nq m~x kbeocl" aeve{ mq cn50 am x eech{ ~oe aepe cn i{eve/

    50 am

    Vhvhnoce

    Pnochnosn =5 am , m

    ^shbhte{ ~oe pebe de{chon-{e pe{e aeve{ be q~pn{fhahnu~n qn ve pevhmnose{jeqse ~olq 50 am cn p{l-f~ochcec/

    Ce{ eb alod~os l ~oe bhin-{e pnochnosn u~n pn{mhsebe nvea~eaho cnb ei~e cnbe bb~vhe *5 am pl{ mns{l(/

    5

    ;

    1

    A~k{h{ be q~pn{fhahn alo ~ofhbs{l p{lsnasl{ *shpl inl-snzshb(/ Nqsn fhbs{l nvhse{u~n q~keo beq {eanq cn beqpbeoseq x qn cnqe{{lbbnonos{n blq mesn{hebnq u~n qnveo e alblae{/

    Alblae{ clq mh{eq pe{ebn-beq" {nqpnseocl qhnmp{n bepnochnosn cn 5am pl{mns{l/ Ea~e{beq e be ebs~-{e u~n snoc{ nb q~nbl

    3

    >

    a~eocl nqs eaekecl" mnolq be ebs~{e cn beq phnc{eq l kebclqeq/Nqseq mh{eq qn{vh{o cn qlpl{sn e be {nibe u~n qn ve e ~s hbhte{ cnq-p~q pe{e hi~ebe{ be e{noe/

    6

    Naje{ e{noe jeqse u~n bbn-i~n e be ebs~{e cn beq mh{eq*mohml cn 1 e 3 am cn nqpn-ql{( x nzsnocn{be alo ~o {eq-s{hbbl/ Nq hmpl{seosn {nbbnoe{alo e{noe cn mq" p~nq jex

    6

    inlsnzshb

    mh{e cnmecn{e

    3

    >

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    :

    9

    Ebhqe{ be e{noe alo ~oe {nibemnsbhae/ Pe{e nbbl" cnqbhte{ be {nibeqlk{n be e{noe" eplxoclbe no beqmh{eq x {nqpnseocl be pnochnosna{nece/

    Qeae{ beq mh{eq x {nbbnoe{ blq j~nalqu~n jeo u~ncecl bhk{nq alo e{noe/

    Alblae{ beq kebclqeq l beq phnc{eqqho phqe{ be e{noe/C~{eosn be hoqsebeaho" qhs~e{qn bl

    mq es{q plqhkbn cn be bshme fhbealblaece pe{e nvhs e{ cnqpbete{be/

    9

    :

    Phnc{eq oes~{ebnq

    Alblae{ aece kebclqe e ohvnb cn beqcnmq" ilbpnoclbe alo be metecn ilme l" pl{ nb alos{e{hl" ee-chnocl e{noe pl{ cnkedl qh nqscnmeqhecl kede alo {nqpnasl e beqls{eq/

    Alblae{ beq phnc{eq x {nashfhae{ q~fl{me qh nq onanqe{hl *ilbpneoclblq kl{cnq cn aece phnc{e alo ~ome{shbbl cn eclu~hoecl{(/Ilbpne{beq alo be mete cn ilmepe{e jhoae{beq no be e{noe/ H{ alm-p{lkeocl nb ohvnb cnb alod~osl" emnchce u~n qn veo hoqsebeocl phn-

    c{eq" x {nqpnse{ be pnochnosn pe{ebe nvea~eaho cnb ei~e cn be bb~vhe/

    Kebclqeq cn jl{mhio l cn ke{{l

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    Me{ae{ nb nmpbetemhnosl cnaece phnc{e nqplbvl{neoclxnql/ P{la~{e{ u~n beq qnpe{e-

    ahlonq nos{n beq phnc{eq" seoslno qnoshcl besn{eb alml b loihs ~-choeb" al{{nqploceo e peqlqol{mebnq/

    50 ;0 am

    >0 60 am

    P{nvn{ mq aeoshcec cn ml{sn{l a~eocl nqsn vexe e ~shbhte{qn sem-kho pe{e beq d~os eq nos {n beq phnc{eq/^shbhte{ ml{s n{l bhqs l pe{e nb ~ql l p{npe{e{bl no ~oe p{lpl{aho 5,3*5 pe{s n cn anmnosl p l{ 3 pe{snq cn e{noe( x eech{ ei~e jeqse f l{-me{ ~oe peqse nqpnqe/

    Qlk{n aepe cn ml{sn{l

    Qlk{n nb q~nbl

    Be alblaeaho ch{nase qlk{n nb q~nbl qn nmpbne f~ocemnosebmnosn nobe {nebhteaho cn peqnlq cn nqshbl deploq

    5

    Aeve{ blq ei~dn{lq bhin{emnosnmq p{lf ~oclq u~n nb i{lql{ cn

    beq phnc{eq n hos{lc~ah{ ~o plalcn shn{{e kbeoce no nb flocl/

    ;

    Alblae{ be phnc{e n jhoae{be alofh{mnte no nb q~nbl" jeqse u~n

    1

    Bhmphe{ be qlbn{e nzhqsnosn alo ~o bhm-phecl{ cn ebse p{nqho/

    Mlde{ be qlbn{e x nzsnocn{ ~oe aepe cn

    ml{sn{l/Pe{e beq phnc{eq oes~{ebnq" nb nqpnql{ cnbe aepe cn ml{sn{l cnpnocn cnb i{lql{cn be phnc{e ~shbhtece *qn {nalmhnoce~onqpnql{ mohml cn ;"> am(/

    ;

    5

    e

    e

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    Alblaeaho Pevhmnosl D~oseq e{noe D~oseq ml{sn{l D~oseq lk{eQlk{n

    bnajl cne{noe

    Phnc{ eq oes ~{ebnq >0 mm

    M{mlbPhnc{eq oes~{ebnq

    Kebclqeq jl{mhio30z30" >0z>0"//Kebclqeq ke{{l

    *clkbn nqpnql{(

    Kebclqeq jl{mhio30z30" >0z>0"//Kebclqeq ke{{ l 10 mm

    Qlk{njl{mhio

    50 am

    E alosho~eaho qn hochae nb s hpl cn d~os e mq ep{lphece no f ~oaho cnbeq ae{easn{qshaeq cnb pevhmnos l x be saohae cn alblaeaho nmpbneclq/

    Nqpe{ah{ ~oe aepe cn e{noe cn{l *i{eo~blmns{e 0/; mm( qlk{nslce be q~pn{fhahn pevhmnosece/

    Jean{ pnons{e{ be e{noe no beq d~oseq alo ~oe nqalke cn pnblc~{l/ [lahe{ ei~e qlk{n beq phn-c{eq l beq kebclqeq pe{e u~n bee{noe pnons{n mndl{ no beq d~os eq/ [npnsh{ be lpn{eaho jeqse u~n beq

    d~oseq qn qes~{no/

    Nb {nd~osecl>

    Chqshoslq shplq cn d~oseq

    D~os eq cn e{noe

    5

    ;

    nqalke

    bbeoe cnilme

    s{eplpebe pnu~ne

    cn de{co

    e{noe cn {l*i{eo~blmns{e 0/; mm(

    J N [ [ E M H N O S E Q

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    Beq phnc{eq l beq kebclqeq qn nmpls{eo ch{nasemnosn qlk{n nb ml{sn{lcn fhdeaho x nqsn ml{sn{l aloqshs~xn xe be d~ose/

    Mlde{ beq d~oseq nos{n beq phn-c{eq l beq kebclqeq" {nbbnoe{beq aloml{sn{l pe{e d~oseq x pn{fhbe{beqalo ~o bbei~n{l/

    Bhmphe{ {phcemnosn beq phn-

    c{eq l kebclqeq meoajeceq cnml{sn{l eosnq cn u~n qn noc~-{ntae/

    Nzhqsno p{lc~aslq nqpnafhalqu~n a~k{no s lceq beq onanqhcecnqcn meosnohmhnos l cn beq phnc{eq

    x beq kebclqeq4 hmpn{mnekhbhteo-snq" eoshmeoajeq" bhmphecl{nq cnnfbl{nqanoaheq" cnaepeosnq" nsa/

    D~oseq cn ml{sn{l

    D~oseq cn lk{e

    5

    ;

    P{lc~aslq pe{e nb meos nohmhnos l

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    K[HALBEDN - ALOQS[^AAHO - CNAL[EAHO - DE[CHON[

    P{lsnin{ aloa~khn{seq cn

    plbhae{kloeslanb~be{

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    Nb plbhae{kloesl anb~be{ nq ~o mesn{heb pbqshal {ihcl"s{eoqpe{nosn x nqsekbn e be b~t/ Qn ~shbhte" pl{ ndnmpbl" no pbeaeqpe{e a~k{h{ b~an{oe{hlq l sn{{eteq/

    Ae{easn{qshaeq

    {hvns plp

    a~ssn{

    phqslbns ns ae{sl~ajn

    cn meqsha qhbhalon

    phoan {hvnsq

    J N [ [ E M H N O S E Q

    Ahoseecjnqhve cneb~mhohl bhqepe{e alblae{no nb kl{cnq~pn{hl{ cnbeq pbeaeq x nobeq vhieqs{eoqvn{qebnq

    Pbeae

    Lks~{ecl{

    Slpn cn pbeae

    Pn{fhb cn kl{cn

    Pn{fhb cn ~oho

    Ahoseecjnqhve cneb~mhohlpl{lqe pe{ealblae{ no nbkl{cn hofn{hl{cn beq pbeaeq

    Nq hmpl{seosn nosnocn{ khno blq s{mholq cnbe nqs{~as~{e cnb sndecl pe{e s{ekede{ mndl{

    phqslbe x ae{s~ajlcn qhbhaloe

    a~ssn{{nmeajecl{e

    {nmeajn

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    5 P{npe{eahoNqpeahe{ beq an{ajeq *60 z 30l 60 z :0 am(/

    Fhde{ blq pn{fhbnq cn kl{cnq xcn ~oho qlk{n beq vhieq/

    Fhde{ blq slpnq cn pbeae e ;am cn blq nzs{nmlq alo{nmeajnq/

    Ie{eoshte{ be nqseou~nhcecalo ~oe d~ose cn qhbhaloe/

    Pnie{ ahose ecjnqhve bhqe nobeq vhieq s{eoqvn{qebnq pe{envhse{ be {nvn{kn{eaho/

    50

    mhohm~m5"03 m5"05 m5"03 m

    5

    ;

    5

    1

    3

    >

    ;

    ; am 1

    >

    mohml

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    ; Alblaeaho

    6

    3

    >

    5

    ;

    1

    A L O Q N D L

    Pe{e ie{eoshte{ be nqseou~nh-cec" a~eocl qne onanqe{hl {ne-bht { bb l b d "

    Pnie{ ahose ecjnqhve bhqeqlk{n nb kl{cn cn be pbeaeq~pn{hl{ x ahose ecjnqhvepl{lqe qlk{n nb kl{cnhofn{hl{" pe{e nvhse{ benos{ece cn ei~e x plbvl xfeahbhse{ be qebhce cn ei~ecn alocnoqeaho/

    keq

    je~s

    6

    1

    >

    kl{cn hofn{hl{

    kl{cn q~pn{hl{

    Beq pbeaeq vhnono p{lsnih-ceq pl{ ~o fhbm no q~q clqae{eq" blaebhte{ be ae{e cn beqpbeaeq s{eseceq alos{e be{echeaho qlbe{ *bbnveo hoq-a{hpahlonq( x alblae{beqjeahe e{{hke/

    Cnde{ ~o nqpeahl cn > mmnos{n beq pbeaeq x nb kl{cncnb pn{fhb pe{e pn{mhsh{ bebhk{n chbeseaho cn be pbeae/

    Noieoaje{ beq ilmeq cnnqseou~nhcec qlk{n aecepn{fhb/

    U~hse{ be pnba~be p{lsnasl-{e cn beq pbeaeq alo ~o a~s-sn{/

    Alblae{ blq pn{fhbnq lks~{e-cl{nq/

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    Alblae{ ~onome{aecl

    an{mhal

    K[HALBEDN - ALOQS[ AAHO - CNAL[EAHO - DE[CHON[E

    y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

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    J N [ [ E M H N O S E Q X M E S N [ H E B N Q

    Jn{{emhnoseq x mesn{hebnq5

    y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

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    44/387y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

    ; Chqshoslq shplq cn nome{aeclq

    A~eocl qn ve e {nvnqsh{ ~o a~e{s l cn kel alo kebclqeq an{mhaeq" beq

    anonfeq chqplohkbnq no nb mn{aecl lf{nano mbshpbnq plqhkhbhcecnqpe{e nome{ae{ nb nqpndl/ Eq" qn p~ncno nmpbne{ sealq l anonfeqalmkhoeocl q~q mnchceq cn fl{me u~n ol jexe u~n nfnas~e{cnmeqheclq al{snq pe{e nome{ae{bl/

    Ls{e plqhkhbhcec nq ~shbhte{ ~o me{al an{mhal p{nchqnecl" u~n olnzhin {nebhte{ ohoio s hpl cn al{s n" pl{u~n blq oi~blq nqso {nq~nbs lqe keqn cn phnteq nqpnahebnq/

    Nqse fhaje p{lxnasl nqs cnchaece e nzpbhae{ peql e peql aml qnalblae ~ol cn nqslq nome{aeclq an{mhalq/

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    45/387y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

    Hoqsebeaho1

    Seosl qh qn s{ekede alo anonfeqalml qh qn ~shbhte ~o nome{aeclp{nchqnecl" bl p{hmn{l u~n jexu~n jean{ nq ~o chqnl qlk{n nbpepnb" aeba~beocl a~hceclqemnosnbe plqhaho cn aece ~oe cn beqphnteq/ Nqse nq be ohae meon{e cnnvhs e{ al{s nq cn bs hme jl{e/

    Inon{ebmnosn" a~eocl qn ebhaese~oe pe{nc no be u~n qn ve e{nebhte{ ~o nome{aecl" qn veoalblaeocl slceq beq kebclqeq"{nqpnseocl nb j~nal no nb u~n qnve e fhde{ nb nqpndl x q~ me{al/ Nqsnj~nal qn chk~de qlk{n be pe{nc alo~oe kls e cn s{ete{/

    Pe{e ebhaese{ nb alod~osl cn be pe{nc" qn almp{~nke u~n nqs vn{shaebalo ex~ce cn ~o ohvnb cn k~{k~de l ~oe pblmece x qn ~shbhteo mh{eqmnsbhaeq pe{e alblae{ beq kebclqeq *vn{ fhaje p{lxnas l + Aml alblae{kebclqeq no ~o m~{l hosn{hl{+ (/

    Nb ecjnqhvl qn nbhin no f~oaho cnb shpl cn kebclqeq an{mhaeq u~n qnveo e alblae{ x cnb shpl cn qlpl{sn qlk{n nb u~n qn veo e fhde{4

    -Pe{ncnq noflqaeceq alo ml{sn{l Ml{sn{l albe alovnoahloeb

    cn anmnosl

    -Pe{ncnq alo nob~ahcl cn xnql Ml{sn{l albe nqpnaheb xnql

    s{echahloeb

    - Ebhaeseclq eoshi~lq

    - Sekhu~nq cn peonbnq cn Peqse ecjnqhve

    ae{so-xnql *Pbec~{(

    - Mecn{e Hmp{hmeaho ' peqse ecjnqhve

    [NPBEOSNL" OHVNBEAHO X EPBLMECL

    NBNAAHO CNB ECJNQHVL

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    46/387y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

    Nb ml{sn{l albe qn p{npe{emntaboclbl alo ei~e" no beqp{lpl{ahlonq hochaeceq pl{ nbfek{haeosn no nb noveqn" jeqselksnon{ ~oe peqse cn aloqhqsnoahea{nmlqe u~n pn{mhse ~oe fahbepbhaeaho alo be bbeoe/

    Qh qn ve e ~shbhte{ ~oe i{eoaeoshcec" alovhnon ~shbhte{ ~omntabecl{ ealpbecl e ~o sebec{l"pe{e nvhse{ u~n be meqe snoiei{~mlq/

    Qh qn nmpbne peqse ecjnqhve"nzhqsno noveqnq alo nb p{lc~aslbhqs l pe{e nb ~ql/

    No a~ebu~hn{e cn blq clq aeqlq" jex

    u~n snon{ qhnmp{n no a~nose bevhce shb cnb p{lc~asl x nb shnmplcn {nashf haeaho u~n pn{mhs n/

    P[NPE[EAHO CNB ECJNQHVL

    -Qlk{n a~ebu~hn{ qlpl{sn Ml{sn{l albe nqpnaheb

    pl{anbohal

    Be q~pn{fhahn clocn qn veo e alblae{ beq phnteq cnkn nqse{ slsebmnosnvn{shaeb x ol cnkn p{nqnose{ {~ilqhcecnq/

    Beq phnteq qn alblaeo no aepe fhoe" nq cnah{" alo ~oe aepe cn ecjnqhvl

    cn > e 50 mm/Be saohae cn alblaeaho nq be cn noalbecl qhmpbn" u~n aloqhqsn no~ose{ nb ecjnqhvl qbl qlk{n nb qlpl{sn/

    Pe{e nbbl" qn alin nb ecjnqhvl cn be ievnse alo ~oe pebnse x qn alblaeqlk{n be pe{sn bhqe cn be bbeoe cnosece/

    ALBLAEAHO CN BEQ PHNTEQ

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    47/387y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

    Beq phnteq an{mhaeq qn alblaeo ~oe e ~oe/ Qn ep{hns eo jeahnocl f~n{tealo be meol jeqse alblae{beq no q~ plqhaho nzease x" e alosho~eaho"qn ilbpneo alo ~oe mete cn ilme jeqse aloqni~h{ u~n s lceq u~ncnoe ohvnb/ Nq cnah{ qho u~n u~ncno + andeq+ nos{n blq kl{cnq/

    E alosho~eaho" x ~shbhteocl nqse pe{snbhqe cn be bbeoe" qn nzshnocn nb ecjnqhvlqlk{n be pe{nc jeqse aloqni~h{ ~oepnba~be fhoe ~ohf l{mnmnosn {npe{shce/

    Qn ce be v~nbs e e be bbeoe" qn hoabhoe ~olq60 x qn pnhoe nb ecjnqhvl alo be pe{sncnosece cn be mhqme" nq cnah{" qn{nebhteo blq q~{alq l nqs{eq onanqe{hlqpe{e fevl{nan{ be ecjn{noahe cn beqphnteq/ Be bbeoe cnos ece u~n qn ealoqndepe{e nqse lpn{eaho nq cn 6 z 6 mm/

    Qh s{eoqa~{{no mq cn chnt mho~slqeosnq cn alblae{ beq phnteq" qn{onanqe{hl vlbvn{ e pnhoe{ nb ecjnqhvl/

    Pe{e aloqni~h{ u~n beq d~oseq nos{nphnteq qneo ~ohfl{mnq" qn ~shbhteoa{~anseq" alb laoclbeq alml qn lkqn{veno be hb~qs{eaho/

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    48/387y y y / b n { l x m n { b h o / n q B n { l x M n { b h o " Q/ E / " ; 0 0 1

    A~eocl jexe qnaecl nb ecjnqhvl*inon{ebmnosn" qn cnkno nqpn{e{ cn;3 e 3: jl{eq" cnpnochnocl cn beqalochahlonq cn j~mncec(" qn p{lancne {nebhte{ nb {nd~osecl/

    Pe{e nbbl qn mntabe nb ml{sn{l pe{e d~os eq alo ei~e" qhi~hnocl beqp{lpl{ahlonq me{aeceq pl{ nbfek{haeosn no nb noveqn" jeqsealoqni~h{ ~oe meqe jlmlione/

    Alo ~oe bbeoe cn ilme" x nfnas~eoclmlvhmhnoslq no cheiloeb" qn {npe{sn

    nb mesn{heb jeqse {nbbnoe{ beq d~oseq/A~eocl nb ml{sn{l jexe noc~{nahclbl q~fhahnosn no beq d~oseq" qn pn{fhbealo ~oe nqps~be pe{e d~oseq x qn~shbhte ~o s{epl jmncl pe{e {nsh{e{nb qlk{eosn/

    S{eoqa~{{hceq clq jl{eq" qn nbhmhoeo blq {nqslq cn mesn{heb f{lseoclalo ~o s{epl qnal/

    [ND^OSECL

    BHMPHNTE

    ^oe vnt u~n nb {nd~os ecl cnb me{al nqs qnal" qn p~ncn fhde{ nb nqpndl no q~ b~ie{ ~shbhteocl ~oe qhbhaloe nqpnaheb nqpndlq/

    A L O Q N D L

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    Hoqsebe{ ~oea~khn{se cn

    pbeaeq loc~beceqkhs~mholqeq

    K[HALBEDN - ALOQS[^AAHO - CNAL[EAHO - DE[CHON

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    5 P{npe{eaho

    Beq pbeaeq loc~beceq khs~mholqeq qh{vno" qlk{n s lc l" pe{e a~k{h{blaebnq hoc~qs{hebnq *sebbn{nq" ie{ednq" oevnq ei{albeq" nsa/(/ No

    ebi~oeq tloeq qn ~shbhteo alml peonbnq kedl blq sndeclq cn sndea~{ve/ Q~ p{hoahpeb es{eashvl nq be {ephcnt cn hoqsebeaho/

    Ae{easn{qshaeq

    J N [ [ E M H N O SE Q

    H M P L [ S E O S NEosnq cn snaje{" almp{lke{ u~n nb mesn{heb e ~shbhte{ {nqpnse be ol{meshve no vhil{/Pe{e ~o {na~k{hmhnosl alo pbeaeq khs~mholqeq" be pnochnosn cnb sndecl cnkn qn{" alml mohml" cnb ;0 . /

    {nmeajn abevl aloaep~ajo

    p~oto {nmeajecl{e me{shbbl

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    Beq vhieq qlk{n beq u~n qn fhde{o beq pbeaeq ol cnkn{onqse{ qnpe{eceq mq cn 60 e :0 am" no aeql alos{e{hl qncnkno hoqsebe{ an{ajeq/

    Blq vhnoslq p{nclmhoeosnq cnsn{mhoe{o nb qnoshcl x nbl{cno cn alblaeaho/

    ;0 60

    5;13>

    69:8

    vnos clmhoeosvhnoslq p{nclmhoeosnq

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    ; HoqsebeahoFhde{ aece pbeae qlk{n beq

    an{ajeq alo abevlq cnaeknte mlbcnece/ Alblae{nb aep~ajo pe{e bli{e{ benqseou~nhcec/

    Abeve{ ~o abevl no aeceloce cn beq vhieq cnbnzs{nml x b~nil ~o abevl

    aece clq loceq/

    [nqpnse{ ~o qlbepn s{eoq-vn{qeb cn ~olq 5> am x blo-ihs ~choeb cn ~oe loce/

    Ie{eoshte{ be nqseou~nh-cec cn beq ~ohlonq alo ~oal{co cn qhbhaloe/

    Pe{e be a~mk{n{e" ~shbhte{nbnmnoslq eoi~be{nq u~nqn fhde{o s emkho alo abe-

    vlq/

    peoonc)nzs{mhs

    peoonc)nzs{mhs

    5

    >

    ;

    1

    3

    ;

    5> am

    1

    >

    A L O Q N D L

    Nvhse{ aemhoe{ qlk{n nqsn shpl cn sndecl/ Qh {nq~bse hochqpnoqekbn" phqe{ qlk{n blq abevlq" xe u~n hochaeo nb nmpbetemhnosl cn beq vhieq x cn beq ahoajeq/

    vhie cn

    nzs{nml

    vhie cnnzs{nml

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    K{ha l fha j e 03 /06 ALBLAE[ ^O E VNOSEO E BHQSE CN MESN[HEB BE NBNAAHO CNQMLOSE[ BE EOSHI^EVNOSEOE BE ALBLAEAHOBE ALBLAEAHOCN BE VNOSEOE BE ALBLAEAHO ALOQNDLQ

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    BH QSE CN MESN[H EBALBLAE[ ^O E VNOSEOE

    NB PH N CN AEK[ENqse ke{{e mnsbhae alo~o nzs{nml p{lvhqsl cnchnosnq qnpe{eclq" bnqqn{vh{ cn pebeoae/

    NB K^[H BHi~ebmnosn cnolmhoeclal{sef{l/ Ebi~olq nqsonu~hpeclq alo ~oep{lsnaaho cn meol/

    B E M E T ECnkhcl eb pnql cn q~aeknte" bnq lf{nan ~oef~n{te cn ilbpn m~x

    q~pn{hl{ e be cn ~ome{shbbl/

    B E M H O H - Q H N [ [E C NMNSEBNQBe cnosec~{e cn beqqhn{{eq cn mnsebnq nqs

    ch{hihce jeahe cnbeosn/

    B E M E Q H B B E C NE B K E H B N[ EPe{e be lks~{eaho cnmnsebnq pl{lqlq" sebnqalml nb jl{mhio" nbxnql" be ebkehbn{he x bemecn{e/

    NQP^ME NZPEOQH VEX PEQECL[NQEqlaheocl blq clq"plc{o nqse{ qni~{lq cnbe qlbhcnt cn q~ fhdeaho/

    B E S E B E C [ E C L [ ENBAS[H AECno p{nfn{noahe e ~oesebec{ecl{e-esl{ohbbecl{e/ Blqmlcnblq qho aekbn qlom~x p{ashalq/

    NB OH VNB CNK^[K^DEQNqaldeo ~o mlcnbl aloclq k~{k~deq" pe{ealos{lbe{ blq ohvnbnqjl{htlosebnq x vn{shaebnq/

    NB MNS[LNzhqsno mlcnblqpbniekbnq x ahoseqms{haeq" nqslq bshmlqp~chnocl nqse{nu~hpeclq alo ~ono{lbbemhnosle~slmshal/

    NB A^SSN[Nb a~ssn{ " p{lvhqsl cnjldeq cnqnajekbnq" nqm~x p{ashal/

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    BE NBNAAH O

    ALBLAE[ ^OE VNOSEOE

    BLQ SH PLQ CN VNOSEOEP~ncno nqalin{ ~o mlcnbl alo jlde fhde" ek{hnocl ecn{naje l e htu~hn{ce" jeahe nb hosn{hl{ l nb nzsn{hl{" ejlde lqahbl-phvlseosn" keqa~beosn p~chnocl phvlse{qlk{n 160" phvlseocl eb{ncncl{ cn ~o ndn vn{shaeb"~oe vnoseoe al{{ncn{e l hoab~ql ~oe abe{eklxe nos{n-ek{hoclqn qho cnde{ peqe{ be bb~vhe/

    BLQ MESN[H EBNQ 5 / EB^MH OH LQh beq vnoseoeq cn eb~mhohl ol shnono oece u~n snmn{ cn blq mljlq x keasn{heq"qho nmke{il qlo qnoqhkbnq e beq j~nbbeq cn anmnosl x cn pblml x e beqve{heahlonq cn snmpn{es~{e/ Nb meosnohmhnosl ol{meb qn bhmhse e beve{beq/ Qhcnqp~q cn ve{hlq elq" be aepe p{lsnasl{e eolchtece nqs ceece" qn snoc{u~n vlbvn{ e phose{/

    ; / P VA Blq keqshcl{nq qhosshalq qn aloqs{~xno alo chvn{qlq pn{f hbnq" e mno~cl{nfl{teclq pl{ phnteq mnsbhaeq/ Pe{e bhmhse{ beq cnfl{meahlonq cnkhceq eb aebl{"qn nqalin be mexl{e cn be vnanq PVA kbeoal/ Nb PVA qn bhmphe m~x fahbmnosn"pn{l nq p{nfn{hkbn ol hoqsebe{qn ~ol mhqml blq keqshcl{nq cn PVA/

    1 / ME CN[E Be mecn{e qn cnfl{me x s{ekede" ecnmq p~ncncni{ece{qn x p~c{h{qn/ Nq pl{ nqsl u~n qn shnon u~np{lsnin{ {ni~be{mnosn alo ~oe epbhaeaho cn phos~{el cn beq~{e mha{l-pl{lqe/ Nqaldeo phos~{eqa~k{hnosnq *albl{neceq( pe{e beq mecn{eq shn{oeq/[nqn{vno blq p{lc~aslq s{eoqpe{nosnq pe{e beqmecn{eq c~{eq/

    CLKBN A[H QSEBNb clkbn a{hqseb lf{nan ~o k~no ehqbemhnosl s{mhal x eaqshal/ Nqs aloqshs~hclpl{ clq a{hqsebnq qnpe{eclq pl{ ~ol l clq nqpeahlq {nbbnolq cn eh{nnqpnahebmnosn qnaecl 4 nb fek{haeosn nvhse eq {hnqilq cn alocnoqeaho ebhosn{hl{ cn blq a{hqsebnq/

    NB QLK[N-A[H QSEBNb qlk{n-a{hqseb nq ls{l mslcl" qho nmke{il mnolq nfhaet" pe{e mndl{e{ nbehqbemhnosl cn ~oe vnoseoe alo a{hqseb ol{meb/ Nq n be mexl{e cn blq aeqlq" ~o

    me{al eechcl alblaecl alo khqei{eq" bl u~n pn{mhsn bhmphe{ {ni~be{mnosn nbnqpeahl nos{n be vnoseoe x nb qlk{n-a{hqseb/

    BEQ CH MNOQH LONQNb {nqpnsl cn beq k~noeq chmnoqhlonq nqpe{sha~be{mnosn hmpl{seosn/ Eu~ qn shnon u~n jean{be chqshoaho nos{n *5( nb pnu~nl eoajl " b cn beepn{s~{e jeahe nb nzsn{hl{" x *;( nb i{eo eoajl" jeahenb hosn{hl{ cn be jekhseaho" nq cnah{ be chqseoahe nos{nnb flocl cn blq clq {novebqlq/

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    CNQMLOSE[ BE EOSH I^E VNOSEOE

    ALBLAE[ ^OE VNOSEOE

    BEQ JLDEQPe{e cnqsl{ohbbe{ blq iltonq" nmphnano pl{ nb mq ekedl"cnqmlosno b~nil nb cnb mnchl" x cnqp~q nb mq ebsl 4 q~s{ekedl qn vn{ feahbhsecl/ Cnqmlosno cnqp~q beq jldeq"nbnmnoslq mkhbnq cn beq vnoseoeq/

    P^NQSE EB CNQO^CL CN BE D^O SENb me{al cn be eoshi~e vnoseoe p~ncn jekn{ qhcl fhdecl nobe pe{nc cn chfn{nosnq meon{eq/ Pe{e cnqpnde{ beq

    fhdeahlonq" nmphnano pl{ u~hse{" alo nb phn cn aek{e" nbme{al x b~nil nb xnql cnb noa~ec{ecl *alo ~o k~{hb x ~ome{shbbl" l mndl{ eo ~oe mete(/

    AL[SN CN BEQ FH DEAHLO NQ Qh nb me{al nqs fhdecl no be lk{e alo peseq cn qnbbecl"snoc{o u~n qeae{ e b~ t qseq alo nb k~{hb x be mete/ Qh ebalos{e{hl nqs fhdecl alo sl{ohbblq x peqecl{nq" nb mslclmq {phcl aloqhqsh{ no qn{{e{ qslq alo ~oe qhn{{e cnmnsebnq/

    BE VNOSEOE MNSBH AE

    ^o me{al cn vnoseoe mnsbhae" esl{ohbbecl ch{nasemnosn nobe pe{nc" qn cnqmlose qnoahbbemnosn alo ~o cnqsl{ohbbecl{/Qh nb keqshcl{ nqs fhdecl no ~o me{al cn mecn{e"cnqsl{obbnobl cn q~ qlpl{sn x b~nil qhn{{no" alo be qhn{{ecn mnsebnq" blq nbnmnoslq u~n fhdeo nb qlpl{sn cn mecn{eno be pe{nc/

    U^H SE[ NB ME[AL Qhn{{no ~o mloseosn cnb me{al c~{mhnosn" bl u~n bnqpn{mhsh{ qeae{bl mq fahbmnosn sh{eocl/ Qh nzhqsn ~omloseosn hosn{mnchl *pl{ ndnmpbl nos{n beq clq jldeq("qh{{nobl semkho x e{{ou~nobl alo nb phn cn aek{e/

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    BE ALBLAEAH O

    ALBLAE[ ^O E VNOSEOE

    BE NQSEOU^NH CECPe{e lksnon{ ~oe k~noe nqseou~nhcec" nq p{nfn{hkbn jean{{novebqlq no be pe{nc" qh ol jeke/ Me{u~no q~ eoajl x q~p{lf~ochcec e bl be{il cn blq besn{ebnq cn be ekn{s~{e" aloboneq vn{shaebnq chqseosnq nos{n q cnb eoajl cnb me{al/Veano alo be meanse x nb k~{hb/

    BLQ [NOVEBQLQNb eoajl cn blq {novebqlq nqs cnsn{mhoecl pl{ beq chmnoqhlonq cnb me{al/ Nonzsn{hl{" ; am/ cn me{al *alml mohml( cnkno u~nce{ vhqhkbnq/

    Be p{lf~ochcec cnb {novebql qn{ f~oaho cnb nmpbetemhnosl cn be vnoseoe"cnsn{mhoecl nqsn bshml pl{ nb s hpl cn eplxl x be oes~{ebnte cn be pe{nc/ Pe{e~oe pe{nc bbnoe nb me{al qn alblae{ e pblml cn be pe{nc hosn{hl{" pn{l snoc{u~n {na~k{h{ nb nqpeahl qnpe{eocl blq clq sekhu~nq cn ~oe pe{nc j~nae/

    ^O BSH ML ALOS[LBVn{hfhu~no blq ohvn bnq" blq epblmlq x blq oi~blq {naslq cnbeq pe{ncnq hosn{oeq cn be ekn{s~{e/ Alos{lbno hi~ebmnosnbe jl{htlosebhcec cnb eplxl cn vnoseoe/ Nfnasno ~o bshmlalos{lb" alblaeocl p{lvhqhloebmnosn nb o~nvl me{al no beekn{s~{e/

    MSLCL 54 PESSEQ CN QNBBECL Pe{e fhde{ nb me{al cn be vnoseoe" p~ncno lpse{ pl{ beqpeseq cn qnbbecl/ Esl{obbnobeq qlk{n nb aeosl cnbc~{mhnosn/ Clkbno beq peseq no ~o oi~bl cn 80/ Nqslpn{mhsh{ eoabe{beq qbhcemnosn no be pe{nc/

    V E AH E [ S{e ano nb n mpbe temh nosl cn b lq ei~dn{lq cn qnbbecl cn bepeseq no blq b~ie{nq al{{nqplochnosnq/ Alo ~o k~{hb x ~oemete" veano blq ei~dn{lq/ P{nvneo clq pl{ aece becl/ Nqslqn{ empbhemnosn q~fhahnosn/

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    BE ALBLAEAH O CN BE VNOSEO E ALBLAE[ ^OE VNOSEOE

    MSLCL ; 4 BLQ SL[OH BBLQ-S^N[AEQPe{e be fhdeaho cn ~oe vnoseoe l cn ~oe p~n{se" p~ncno ~shbhte{ hi~ebmnosn~olq peqecl{nq nqpnahebnq/ Nb sl{ohbbl xe nqs alblaecl cnos{l cn be s~n{ae x qnp{lbloie pl{ ~oe phnte aohae u~n qn noqeoaje a~eocl qn esl{ohbbe" x q~dnse bevnoseoe no q~ qhshl/

    BE MEQHBBE A~ebu~hn{e u~n qne nb mslcl" bhmphno cn plbvl nb veol xb~nil cnplqhsno *alo ~o epbhaecl{ cn ae{s~ajlq( ~oe aepecn meqqhbbe cn ebkehbn{e qlk{n nb eplxl" no nb qhshl clocnqn alblae{ be vnoseoe" eq alml qlk{n nb c~{mhnosn/ Pe{ee~mnose{ be aeoshcec cn p{lc~asl u~n qebn cnb epbhaecl{"{nal{sno q~ phal/

    BEQ A^EQ No be sh{e cn meqhbbe" alblu~no s{eoqvn{qebmnosn ~oeqa~eq cn mecn{e qlk{n beq a~ebnq qn eqnose{ be vnoseoe/Nq be ohae meon{e cn al blae{be khno jl{htlosebmnosn x cncnde{ ~o nqpeahl {ni~be{ nos{n nb me{al x be pe{nc/

    BLQ PEQECL[NQPlo ieo n o q~ qhsh l be vnoseoe/ Abanobe" pl{ aece becl *xp{nfn{nosnmnosn no be p{lbloieaho cn blq s{evnqelq( alopeqecl{nq cn mecn{e *khqnbeclq(/ Vn{hfhu~no k~noealblaeaho jl{htloseb x vn{shaeb cnb c~{mhnosn" x b~nilalos{lbno nb k~no f~oahloemhnosl cn beq jldeq/

    B E F H D E AH O C N B E Q P E S E QPe{e fhde{ beq peseq cn qnbbecl" qbbnobeq alo ~o anmnosl{phcl l alo ~o ml{sn{l nqpnaheb/ ^shbhano ~oe pebnsebbeme ce +bnoi~e cn iesl+ pe{e epbhae{bl/ Pe{e {nfl{te{ nbeoabedn" p~ncno eech{ eb ml{sn{l ~oeq phnc{eq s{hs~{eceq/

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    BE ALBLAEAH O

    ALBLAE[ ^OE VNOSEOE

    BE FH DEAH O CN BLQ PEQECL[NQ Pe{e fhde{ be vnoseoe alo sl{ohbblq-s~n{aeq" cnqbhanocnqnajlq cn eiblmn{ecl nos{n nb me{alq x be pe{nc" no blqb~ie{nq clocn pn{fl{e{o cnqp~q blq ei~dn{lq pee{esl{ohbbe{ nb me{al no q~ qhshl/ ^oe vnt nfnas~ece bepn{fl{eaho" plc{o j~och{ blq sl{ohbblq-s~n{aeq x esl{ohbbe{nb c~{mhnosn no nb veol/

    P [ NP E [ E S H V L Q Pe{e q~dnse{ qbhcemnosn be vnoseoe no be plqhahocnqnece" be qlb~aho aloqhqsn no albme{ nb nqpeahl nos{n nb

    me{al x be pe{nc alo nqp~me plbh~{nseoe / J~mhchfhu~nop{hmn{l nb me{al" alo ~o vepl{htecl{ pe{e pbeoseq" bl u~nmndl{e{ be ecjn{noahe x be nzpeoqho cn be nqp~me/

    BE NQP^ME NZPEOCH CE Qn s{ese cn ~oe nqp~me plbh~{nseoe e~slnzpeoqhve" u~n ce~oe fhdeaho nzs{nmecemnosn qbhce" eb mhqml shnmpl u~n~o pn{fnasl ehqbemhnosl s{mhal x eaqshal/ Ol ploieocnmeqhecl/ No aeoshcec nzanqhve" q~ p{nqho plc{ecnqpbete{ nb me{al/

    U^H SE[ BLQ NZANCNOSNQ

    Cnqp~q cn u~n qn jexe noc~{nahcl" plc{o u~hse{ beqa~eq x sepe{ blq ei~dn{lq alo be nqp~me nzpeochce /Cndno cn o~nvl u~n qn noc~{ntae be nqp~me x {nal{sno blqnzancnosnq alo nb a~ssn{/

    BLQ EAEKECLQJex u~n nvhse{ u~n be nqp~me nzpeochce nqs vhqhkbn/ Qnp~ncn chqhm~be{ alo ~oe aepe cn xnql 4 nzshoceobl khno xebqnobl a~hceclqemnosn/ Semkho p~ncno alblae{seped~oseq/

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    ALOQNDLQ

    ALBLAE[ ^OE VNOSEOE

    AN[[EC^[EQ Nb qhqsnme cn an{{ec~{e mq f{na~nosnmnosn ~shbhtecl pe{ebeq vnoseoeq ol{mebnq nq be febbnke *5(/ Pe{e beq p~n{seq-vnoseoeq" be fecn kexlonse *;( nq nb qhqsnme cn ahn{{n mqnfhaet / Ebi~oeq nmp~ec~{eq p~ncno nqse{ p{lvhqseq cn~oe an{{ec~{e/

    BLQ BHM H SECL[NQ CN EKN[S^[EBlq bhmhsecl{nq pn{mhsno cnde{ ~oe vnoseoe nos{nekhn{se xkblu~nece no be plqhaho cnqnece/ Ebi~olq nqso hoab~ql

    p{lvhqslq cn ~o chqplqhshvl eosh-nf{eaaho /

    NB MEOSNOH MH NOSL CN BEQ KH QEI[EQNq k~nol noi{eqe{ beq khqei{eq cn beq p~n{seq ~oe vnt ebel/ Pe{e jean{bl" eanhsn pe{e mlsl{nq" plal nqpnql" qn{q~fhahnosn" l semkho eanhsn pe{e mu~hoeq cn alqn{/Ebi~olq shplq cn iltonq" nu~hpeclq alo {lcemhnoslq cnklbe cn oxblo" ol onanqhseo ohoio noi{eqn/

    PNU^NL EH QBEMH NOSL

    Blq hosn{qshahlq nos{n pe{nc x me{al cndeo peqe{ nb eh{n"hoab~ql qh nqso lks~{eclq alo ~oe sekbhbbe cn mecn{e/Spnoblq alo meqhbbe" l no aeql cn fhq~{eq cnmeqhecli{eocnq" alblu~no no be jnochc~{e ~oe d~ose cn nqp~meanb~be{ *cn 5"> z q~ eoajl( x sepno b~nil alo qhbhaloe/

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    K{halfhaje 01/06 AML ALMKESH [ BEJ^MNCEC BHQSE CN MESN[HEB BEQ AE^QEQ CN BE J^MNCEC BE P[NPE[EAHO BLQ SNAJLQ AEOEBHTEAHO , CNQEIN BEQ PE[NCNQ NZSN[HL[NQ BEQ PE[NCNQ NZSN[HL[NQ

    BEQ PE[NCNQ NZSN[HL[NQ PE[NCNQ NZSN[HL[NQ NHOSN[HL[NQ PE[NCNQ NZSN[HL[NQ NHOSN[HL[NQ BEQ PE[NCNQ HOSN[HL[NQ BEQ PE[NCNQ HOSN[HL[NQ NB QSEOL BLQ Q^NBLQSEKBE [NAEPHS^BESHVE

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    BH QSE CN MESN[H EBAML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC

    BE SEBEC[ECL[E 4 Cnkn nqalin{qn nof~oaho cn blq a{hsn{hlqqhi~hnosnq 4 plsnoahe"ed~qsn nbnas{ohal cn bevnblahcec" {lseaho ecn{naje n htu~hn{ce/

    METE ' NQALPBL 4Nbhde p{nfn{nosnmnosn ~onqalpbl alo meoil cnp{lsnaaho/

    [EQAECL[ '[EQU^NSE 4

    ^on ~o {eqaecl{s{heoi~be{ pe{enoqeoaje{ beq fhq~{eq cnbeq pe{ncnq/

    BE MEQHBBE 4Be meqhbbe *qhbhaloe(

    vnochce no ae{s~ajlq qnepbhae alo be ex~ce cn~oe phqslbe/

    BE NQP^ME P^ 4Be nqp~me P^" alo q~i{eo plcn{ cnnzpeoqho" nq ~oehqbeosn m~x k~nol/

    BE K[LAJE, PH OANB 4Pe{e beq pe{ncnqaeoebhteahlonq x snajlq"nqalde ~oe k{lajeeoaje/

    NB [LCH BBL 4^o meoil snbnqaphal bnqn{ cn i{eo ~shbhcec e bejl{e cn nfnas~e{ ebi~olqs{ekedlq no ebsl/

    BE PH QSLBENBAS[H AE PE[EPH OS^[E 4^oe phqslbe nbas{hae qhoeh{n nq m~x p{ashaepe{e beq i{eocnqq~pn{fhahnq qho vnoseoeq/

    NB BH MPHECL[ CNEBSE P[NQH O 4Nzhqsno eaanql{hlq u~npn{mhsno {nebhte{ ~oe{noecl jhc{~bhal/

    PEB^QS[N XPEB^QS[HBBL * PE[ED^OSEQ( 4^qn nb peb~qs{n nooi~blq x d~oseq cnchbeseaho x nb peb~qs{hbble be jl{e cn {nbbnoe{ be

    d~oseq/

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    AML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC BEQ AE^QEQ CN BE J^ MNCEC

    BE PL[LQHC EC 4 Nb ei~e x be j~mncec p~ncno hofhbs{eqn no ~o mesn {heb"qlk{n slcl qh qsn nq pl{lql/ Nb ei~e cn bb~vhe p~ncnhofhbs{e{qn no beq pe{ncnq e ae~qe cn ~oe mebe lk{e cnebkehbn{e *i{evncec( x nb ei~e cn be aepe f{nshae p~ncnes{evnqe{ be pe{nc jeahe e{{hke *aephbe{hcec(/

    BEQ PNU^NEQ I[H NSEQ Q^PN[FH AH EBNQ 4 Qn fl{meo c~{eosn nb qnaecl cnb anmnosl" inon{e bmnosn qh je qhcl m~x{phcl" l qh nb anmnosl ol qn je mntabecl no beq p{lpl{ahlonq al{{naseq/ No

    p{hoahphl" nqseq fhq~{eq qlo q~pn{fhahebnq x q~ p{lf~ochcec ol q~pn{e e be cnbnob~ahcl/

    BBEQ MH A[LFHQ^[EQ 4 Beq mha{lfhq~{eq q~{ino a~eocl blq chqshoslq mesn{hebnq nqso +eas~eocl+ lnoalino/ Q~ eoa jl ol q lk{npeqe 0 "; mm" pn{l eveoteo e s{evq cn slcl nbnqpnqlq cn beq aepeq cn nob~ahcl ~ jl{mhio/

    BE FH Q^[EQ 4Beq fhq~{eq qn p{lc~ano a~eocl ol jex d~oseq cn chbeseaho/Q~ eoajl p~ncn ebaeote{ ve{hlq mhbmns{lq/ P~ncnoes{evnqe{ slcl nb nqpnql{ cn beq aepeq cn nob~ah cl x evnanq hoab~ql beq pe{ncnq cn jl{mhio/

    BEQ D^OSEQ 4Eb alos{e{hl u~n beq fhq~{eq" beq d~oseq qlo nqpeahlq a{neclqvlb~ose{hemnosn nos{n ; pe{snq cn ~oe aloqs{~aaho *l cnmeon{e mq inon{eb nos{n clq mesn{hebnq(/ Q~ lkdnshvl nqon~s{ebhte{ beq cnfl{meahlonq x nvhse{ eq be epe{haho cnfhq~{eq/

    BE ALOCNOQEAHO 4 A~eosl mq aebhnosn nq nb eh{n" mq vepl{ cn ei~e p~ncnalosnon{/ No aeql cn nof{hemhnosl" cnkn{ p~nq {nqshs~h{~oe pe{sn cn nqse j~mncec/ Nq bl u~n la~{{n a~eocl" ebnos{e{ no aloseasl alo ~oe q~pn{fhahn f{e *pl{ nd/ ^oepe{nc(" nb eh{n aebhnosn x jmncl cnde ilshseq cnalocnoqeaho/

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    BE P[NPE[EAH O AML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC

    BE BHMPH NTE 4 Nq nvhcnosn u~n nb flocl cnkn{ bhmphe{qnaloahnot~cemnosn eosnq cn epbhae{ a~ebu~hn{ shpl cnp{lsnaaho alos{e be j~mncec/ Nb e{noecl jhc{~bhal alo ~obhmphecl{ cn ebse p{nqho {nq~bse m~x nfhaet no be bhmphntecn pe{ncnq" q~nblq x snajlq/ *Nod~ei~n cnqp~q x cndnqnae{(/

    NB M^QIL 4 Nb m~qil qn fl{me no blq b~ie{nq q~ahlq x plal lbneclq/ Noaeoshcecnq nzanqhveq" hmphcn be vnoshbeaho nosn beq pbeaeq

    cn phte{{e" fevl{nan be q~khce cn be j~mncec" nsa/ Epbhu~n~o eoshm~qil *hoab~ql alml mnchl cn p{nvnoaho( alo ~oanphbbl" nqplode l phqslbe" x nodein alo ei~e abe{e/

    BEQ Q^PN[FH AH NQ I[EQEQ 4 Vhn{se ~oeq ilseq cn ei~e pe{e almp{lke{ qh ~oe q~pn{fhahnnq {nebmnosn i{eqe/ Qh be q~pn{fhahn beq ekql{kn" eb aekl cn~o m ho~s l alml m zhml" ol nq i{eqe x q~ ecjn{noahe nqk~noe/ Qh ol" epbhu~n ~o cnqnoi{eqeosn *s{habl{lnshbnol pl{nd/( alo ~o anphbbl x b~nil nod~ei~n/

    BEQ PH OS^[EQ 4

    Beq phos~{eq vhndeq" cnqaloajeceq l ei{hnsece ol pn{mhsnobe epbhaeaho cn p{lc~aslq jhc{f~ilq/ Pe{e u~hse{beq"{qu~nbeq l" mndl{ e~o" {na~{{e eb e{noecl jhc{~bhal/ Beqphos~{eq no k~no nqsecl cnkno beve{qn alo cnsn{inosn*nod~i~nbeq x cdnbeq qnae{(/ U~hsn nb zhcl/

    BEQ PE[NCNQ F[H EKBNQ 4 Nbhmhon beq tloeq q~nbseq cn beq q~pn{fhahnq f{hekbnq alo ~oanphbbl cn oxblo c~{l/ Noqeoajn beq i{hnseq alo ~o {eqaecl{s{heoi~be{/ B~nil epbhu~n *alo k{laje( ~oe aepe cn floclu~n {nfl{te{ nb qlpl{sn" chqmho~h{ q~ pl{lqhcec xe~mnose{ q~ ecjn{noahe/

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    BLQ SNAJLQ AML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC

    BLQ SNAJLQ H OABH OECLQ 4 Beq sn deq {l seq cnkno aemkhe{qn a~eosl eosnq/ Hmp{nionbeq phte{{eq" sndeq pl{lqeq" fhk{lanmnosl l i~hde{{lq alo ~op{lc~asl +eh{neosn+ *nvnos~ebmnosn s{eoqpe{nosn( u~nsepe{ blq pl{lq pe{e u~n be bb~vhe x be j~mncec ol qnhofhbs{no mq/ Epbhu~n nb p{lc~asl alo phoanb l phqslbe/

    NNQSEOU^NH CEC SNAJL , AJH MNONE 4 Beq ~ohlonq nos{n clq mesn{hebn q chqshoslq" alml be cnbsnajl alo be keqn cn be ajhmnone" qlo f{ihbnq/ ^shbhan

    ahoseq cn nqse ou~nhcec pe{e a~k{h{ beq i{hnseq x mndl{e{ benqseou~nhcec" pl{ ndnmpbl pepnb cn eb~mhohl keecl alo~oe aepe khs~mholqe *meqhbbe(/

    BE ILME BU^H CE 4 BBlq snajlq pbeolq q~f{no fhbs{eahlonq cn j~mncec/ P{hmn{lqn bn q ce ~oe aepe cn flocl x b~nil qn bnq s{ese alo ~oeilme bu~hce *epbhaece alo {lchbbl" no f{l" no clq aepeq(/Be ilme qn hofhbs{e almpbnsemnosn no blq pl{lq x no beqcnqhi~ebcecnq fl{meocl ~oe aepe nqseoae p{lsnasl{e/

    [ [NPE[E[ KEDL BE BB^VH E 4

    E vnanq nq onanqe{hl {npe{e{ beq hofhbs{eahlonq qho cnml{e"hoab~ql kedl ~oe bb~vhe {nahe" alo seb cn nvhse{ mebnqmexl{nq/ Jex p{lc~aslq nqpnahebnq pe{e nqseq {npe{eahlonqcn ~{inoahe no fl{m e cn peqse *epbhae{ alo {lchbbl lk{laje(/

    M M E QH B BE ' FH K [ E CN VH C [ H L 4 Be meqhbbe pe{e snajlq alofhn{n nqseou~nhcec e beq fhq~{eq x

    d~oseq/ ^shbhan ~oe meqhbbe no ae{s~ajlq seosl no floclqqnalq alml no jmnclq/ No m~ajlq aeqlq p~ncn qn{alovnohnosn alblae{ ~o sndhcl cn fhk{e cn vhc{hl nos{n clqnqpnql{nq cn meqhbbe pe{e mndl{e{ be {nqhqsnoahe/

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    AEOEBH TEAH O , CNQEIN AML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC

    NB MEOSNOH MH NOSL 4 No beq aeoebhteahlonq qn ea~m~beo jldeq" {emeq x {nqhc~lq/Bmphnbeq alo {ni~be{hcec pe{e nvhse{ u~n qn esl{no/Bmphnbeq e ajl{{l x ep{lvnajn pe{e almp{lke{ qh nb ei~eah{a~be al{{nasemnosn l qn nqseoae no ebi~olq qhshlq/Nocn{nan beq pe{snq j~ochceq cnqpbeteocl" pl{ ndnmpbl"blq qlpl{snq/

    BEQ F^IEQ CN BEQ AEOE BH TEAH LONQ 4 ^oe f~ie no nb cnqein p~ncn nqs{lpne{ beq pe{ncnq/Aemkhn blq s{emlq cn aeoebhteaho *cn pbqshal(

    nqs{lpneclq/ A~k{e blq ei~dn{lq cn beq aeoebhteahlonq cnthoa 4 epbhu~n ~oe aepe cn knso" aebhnosn ~o s{ltl cnsndhcl cn fhk{e cn vhc{hl *alo nb u~nmecl{ cn ieq( xalbu~nbl p{nqhloeocl/

    [NPE[EAH LONQ H MPL[SEOSNQ 4 Beq f~ieq hmpl{seosnq cnkno s{ese{qn alo ~o p{lc~asl aloilme bu~hce e nzsnocn{ no clq aepeq cn k{laje 4 bep{hmn{ e cnkn chb~h{qn" pn{l ol eq be qni~oce *epbhaece s{eqnb qnaecl be p{hmn{e(/ [nf~n{an beq d~oseq alo sndhcl cnfhk{e cn vhc{hl qhnmp{n u~n qne plqhkbn/

    ALBLAEAHO CN ^OE E BAEAJLFE 4

    P~ncn alblae{ ~oe ebaeajlfe no be klae cn be aen{ecnqshoece e kblu~ne{ blq {nqhc~lq mq i{~nqlq x nvhse{ eq u~n nb cnqein qn lkqs{~xe/ Abe{l nqs" cnkn{ bhmphe{ beebaeajlfe e mno~cl/

    BE NVEA^EAH O CNB EI^E 4 Pe{e nvhse{ u~n" qhi~hnocl q~ a~{ql" beq ei~eq cn bb~vhenqs{lpnno i{evnmnosn be pe{nc n hoab~ql q~q ahmhnoslq"alblu~n ~o alcl # *)Cnbfo)(# no nb nzs{nml cnb aeoebo u~nbeq {naloc~tae jeahe ~oe ahqsn{oe l ~oe flqe alonasece ebebaeose{hbbecl/

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    BEQ PE[NCNQ NZSN[H L[NQ AML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC

    BEQ PE[NCNQ J^NAEQ 4 Beq pe{ncnq j~naeq *clkbnq( lf{nano ~oe mndl{ p{lsnaahoalos{e be j~mncec/ Nb ei~e cn bb~vhe es{evhnqe nbpe{emnosl nzsn{hl{ x {naen no be ame{e hosn{hl{" clocn nqnvea~ece pl{ nb kekn{l cn pblml x be d~oseq mloseosnqcndeceq ekhn{seq/ Nb pe{emnosl hosn{ol pn{meonanalmpbnsemnosn qnal/

    NB EH QBEMH NOSL CN BEQ PE[NCNQ J^NAEQ 4 Pe{e ehqbe{ ~o pe{nc j~nae *nvhse{ be alocnoqeaho( bbnon beame{e qbl cn fl{me pe{aheb" e fho cn u~n u~ncn keqseosn

    nqpeahl pe{e be nvea~eaho cnb ei~e/ Beq aepeq cnplbhnqsh{nol ol ekql{kno nb ei~e/ S{esn nb pe{emnoslnzsn{hl{ alos{e beq hofhbs{eahlonq p{nfn{nosnmnosn alo ~o{nvnqshmhnosl/

    NB MEOSNOHM H NOSL CN BEQ D^OSEQ 4 Beq d~oseq qhi~no qhnocl nb p~osl ckhb cn beq pe{ncnq cnmemplqsn{e xe qneo j~naeq l ol/ Cnqp~q cn ebioshnmpl" qn jhnbeo" qn cnqml{loeo x ol lplono {nqhqsnoaheeb ei~e/ U~hsn nb ml{sn{l vhndl jeqse 5> mm cnp{lf~ochcec alo ~o m e{shbbl x ~o ahoanb l alo be ex~ce cn~o {eqaecl{/

    NB [ND^OSEC L4

    Bhmphn be d~oseq x j~mnctaebeq/ P{npe{n ~o o~nvlml{sn{l alo ~oe pe{sn cn anmnosl pl{ s{nq cn e{noe fhoe/Alblu~n nqsn ml{sn{l qlk{n ~oe bbeoe n hos{lctaebl alo ~opeb~qs{hbbl pe{e d~ose/ Pe{e nb eaekecl cn be d~oseq" ~shbhanpl{ ndnmpbl ~o {nal{sn cn s~kn{e cnb mhqml eoajl/

    NB EHQBEMH NOSL NZSN[H L[ 4 ^oe pe{ nc meahte p~ncn {na~k{h{qn pl{ f~n{e alo ~oeqeoie{hbbeq cn pn{fhbnq PVA l cn pbeaeq cn mecn{e fhdeceqlk{n ~o e{meto cn mecn{e/ Alblu~n ~o ehqbeosneoshalocnoqeaho nos{n be pe{nc x beq eoie{hbbeq cnb becl cnpe{nc/ Cndn nqpeahl q~fhahnosn pe{e be vnoshbeaho/

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    H OFH BS[EAH O CN BEQ EI^EQ CN BB^VH E 4

    AML ALMKESH [ BE J^MNCEC

    H OFH BS[EAH O CN BEQ EI^EQ CN BB^VH E 4 Beq ei~eq cn bb~vhe p~ncno hofhbs{e{qn cn ve{heq fl{meq no ~oe aloqs{~aaho 4pl{ beq {eo~{eq l pl{ blq pl{lq cnb mesn{heb/ Ino n{ebmnosn" be pe{nc mqemnoetece nq eu~nbbe u~n jean f{nosn eb vhnosl clmhoeosn" xe u~n n qsn bshmleecn f~n{te e be aece cnb ei~e/Beq pe{ncnq cnq hmp{nioeceq cn j~mncec phn{cno slcl q~ k{hbbl x nqsshae/ Blqpl{lq q~pn{fhahebnq qn noq~aheo" x o l qbl qn {nu~nk{ede nb anmnosl no beq~pn{fhahn qhol u~n be phos~{e qn cnqaloaje/ No nb hosn{hl{" blq pepnbnq phoseclqqn cnqpnieo" be phos~{e qn cnqa~nbie x jex cnmeqhece j~mncec no nbemkhnosn/

    BEQ FHQ^[EQ Q^PN[FH AH EBNQ 4 Nb {nvnqshmhnosl cn beq pe{ncnq nzsn{hl{nq p~ncn nos{ee{~o i{eo omn{l cn fhq~{eq q~pn{fhahebnq/ Qh q~ semel nq{nbeshvemnosn pnu~nl" cnkn{ s{ese{ be feajece noqni~hcealo ~o {nvnqshmhnosl eoshfhq~{eq hmpn{mnekbn" nbqshal x eq~ vnt alkn{sl{/ Pl{ bl inon{eb" nqslq qlo cn ~o kbeoalf{nqal/

    BEQ FH Q^[EQ H MPL[SEOSNQ 4 Cnkn ek{h{ beq fhq~{eq hmpl{seosnq alo ~o nqalpbl *qlk{n 9 -: mm cn eoajl x 5 am cn p{lf~ochcec(/ Bmphnbeq"cnqnmpbvnbeq x spnbeq alo ~oe meqhbbe u~n p~ncephose{qn/ Be phqslbe bn pn{mhsn nzs{en{ be meqhbbe cnbae{s~ajl/ Ebhqn alo be a~ajhbbe cn nob~ahcl" phosn l s{esn bepe{nc/

    BE PL[LQHCE C 4 No beq pe{ncnq phoseceq l nob~ahceq qn epbhae ~o{nvnqshmhnosl cnq p~q cn ~oe aepe cn flocl cnb mhqmlp{lc~asl chb~hcl x nzsnochcl alo be k{laje/ Be aepe olchb~ce qn p~ncn epbhae{ ebi~oeq jl{eq cnqp~q/ Nb eqpnaslcnb eaekecl cnpnocn{ cnb ~snoqhbhl ~shbhtecl/

    Qlk{n ~oe pe{nc cn phnc{e l cn bec{hbblq" peqn ~o p{lc~aslcn nqseou~nhcec hoalbl{l *alo be k{laje" nb {lchbbl l bephqslbe(/ Epbu~nbl no clq l s{nq aepeq q~anqhveq" pl{s{emlq al{slq" mhnos{eq nb flocl ekql{ke nb p{lc~asl xjeqse u~n qn qes~{n/

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    BEQ PE[NCNQ NZSN[H L[NQ AML ALMKESH [ BE J^MNCEC

    BE NBEQSH AH CEC 4 Be p{hoahpeb vnosede cn blq p{lc~aslq cn {nvnqshmhnosljhc{f~ilq alo {nqpnasl cn beq phos~{eq nq u~n qlovhqhkbnmnosn mq nbqshalq x qn ecepseo mndl{ e beqcnfl{meahlonq x e be aloqs{~aaho x nqsl {ns{eqeqnoqhkbnmnosn be epe{haho cn fhq~{eq/

    BLQ P[LC^ASLQ +EH [NEOSNQ+ 4) Be phos~{e x nb {nvnqshmhnosl jhc{f~ilq ol cnkno qn{hmpn{mnekbnq/ Pl{ nb alos{e{hl" cnkno cnde{ nqaepe{ be

    j~mncec jeahe nb nzsn{hl{ pe{e nvhse{ be cni{eceaho cn beqpe{ncnq no q~ ae{e hosn{oe/ Nqsn nq nb aeql cn blqp{lc~aslq +EH[NEOSNQ+ *l mha{lpl{lqlq(/

    BLQ ME[ALQ 4 Beq ~ohlonq no meb nqsecl nos{n blq me{alq cn p~n{seq lvnoseoeq x be lk{e cn ebkehbn{e" cnkno s{ese{qn aloohvnbecl{nq e keqn c n qhbhaloeq l nqp~me P^ *no qp{ex(/Nqse bshme qn nzpeocn seosl u~n keqse bbnoe{ alo be mhseccn {eo~{e7 cnqp~q cn qnae{qn nqse{ {npbnse/

    BLQ AH MH NOSLQ 4

    Pl{ cn kedl cnb ohvnb cnb q~nbe" ~shbhan ~o p{lc~asl cnnqseou~nhcec u~n ol fl{mn ~oe pnba~be p{lsnasl{e no beq~pn{fhahn cnb mesn{heb" qhol u~n pnons{n pl{ nos{n q~qpl{lq pe{e on~s{ebhte{ be j~mncec/ Nzshnoce ~oe p{hmn{eaepe alo ~oe k{laje q~evn qlk{n flocl qnal x b~nil cnos{n ; x 1 aepeq q~pbnmnose{heq

    BEQ PE[NCNQ NOSN[[EC EQ 4 A~eocl bb~nvn" nb ei~e qn fhbs{e no be shn{{e x s{ese cnpnons{e{ no beq lk{eq cn ebkehbn{e nosn{{eceq pe{e{nmlose{/ Qlaevn be pe{n c" qh nq plqhkbn jeqse be mhqmeqlbn{e cn blq ahmhnoslq x bmphnbe/ Epbhu~n b~nil clq aepeqcn ilme bu~hce alo ~o phoanb x v~nbve e alblae{ be shn{{e/

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    PE[NCNQ NZSN[H L[NQ N H OSN[H L[NQ

    AML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC

    C[NOEDN CNB Q^NBL 4 Qh aloqs{~xn ~oe aeqe no ~o sn{{nol jmncl" alblu~ns~klq cn c{noedn pn{fl{eclq *a~khn{slq cn fhk {e cn alalu~n ease alml fhbs{l x nvhse u~n blq s~klq cn c{noedn qnlkqs{~xeo(/ [nqpnsn ~oe hoabhoeaho {ni~be{ x a~k{e blqs~klq alo e{noe/ Alonasn blq s~klq cn c{noedn alo nbalbnasl{ cn be kedece cn ei~e/

    KE[[N[E NO BE LK[E 4 Pl{ bl inon{eb" e be jl{e cn aloqs{~h{ beq pe{ncnq" qn p{nvbe hoal{pl{eaho cn ~oe ke{{n{e cn nqseou~nhcec" *nq cnah{

    ~o {nvnqshmhnosl khs~mholql" ~o kekn{l cn pblml l ~oepnba~be cn pbqshal( e be lk{e cn ebkehbn{e" an{ae cnb ohvnbcnb q~nbl x e be mhqme ebs~{e no slcl nb pn{mns{ l cn beaeqe/

    BE E BS^[E AL[[NASE 4 Be ke{{n{e cn nqseou~nhcec cnkn qhs~e{qn pl{ noahme cn besn{{ete no be ae{e nzsn{hl{ cn be pe{nc x cns{q cnb pbhosl *e{eq cnb nob~ahcl( no be ae{e hosn{oe/ Be j~mncec cnb q~nblcl cnkn nos{e{ no aloseasl alo be lk{e oh nb nob~ahcl/

    ALBLAEAH O NO ^O E AEQE XE NZH QSNOSN 4

    Qh be aeqe qn aloqs{~x qho ke{{n{e cn nqseou~nhcec" cnkn{nebhte{ qeoi{eq e bl be{il cn slce be pe{nc *alo ~oeemlbecl{e eoi~be{(" pn{l cndeocl qhnmp{n ~o mns{l cnpe{nc hosease pl{ aece mns{l cn pe{nc qeoi{eceebsn{oeshvemnosn pe{e ol cnkhbhse{ be aloqs{~aaho/

    BE MNMK[EOE 4 Cnqp~q" p~ncn alblae{ be mnmk{eoe no beq ekn{s~{eq xa~k{h{be alo ml{sn{l/ A~eocl qn jexe qnaecl" p{lancn{ cnhi~eb meon{e alo beq tloeq eo pl{ s{ese{/ No beq pe{ncnqclkbn q" be mnm k{eo e cnkn e pbhae{qn no be ae{e hosn{oe*alqsn nbnvecl(/

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    PE[NCNQ NZSN[H L[NQ N H OSN[H L[NQ

    AML ALMKESH [ BE J^MNCEC

    H OXNAAHLO NQ CN [NQH OE 4 P~ncn jean{ u~n beq lk{eq qneo pn{fnasemnosn nqseoaeq alo be hoxnaaho cn{nqhoeq qhosshaeq/ Cn nqse fl{ me" beq aepeq mq kedeq cn beq pe{ncnq qnv~nbvno hmpn{mnekbnq x p~cn {nebhte { ~oe o~nve ke{{n{e cn nqseou~nhcec/ Cnqn{ onanqe{hl" lk{n eq alo blq pe{emnoslq hosn{ol x nzsn{ol cn beq pe{ncnqj~naeq/ Cnkn{ nqpn{e{ ebi~olq mnqnq pe{e eqni~{e{qn cnb zhsl cn q~s{ekedl/ A~nosn cn nos{n > e 6 mnqnq eosnq cn u~n be j~mncec p{nqnosn no beqpe{ncnq qn nvepl{n pl{ almpbnsl/ Qh eb aekl cn nqsn shnmpl almp{~nke u~neo pn{qhqsn ~oe j~mncec eomebe" {nphse be lpn{eaho/

    BE PN[FL[EAH O 4 Pn{fl{n e 5> am cnb q~nbl x e ~oe chqseoahe cn 5> amei~dn{lq hoabhoeclq a~xl be{il qne cn nb nqpnql{ cn bepe{nc cn be{il/ Pl{ bl inon{eb" nb p{lc~asl qn nzshnocn no~o {echl cn ;0 am eb{ncncl{ cnb ei~dn{ l/ Cn qn{ plqhkbn"jeie blq ei~dn{ lq no be d~oseq mloseosnq xe u~n aloshnonomnolq ml{sn{l x cndeo peqe{ be {nqhoeq alo mq feahbhcec/

    BLQ H OXNASL[NQ 4 Cnqnmplbvn blq ei~dn{lq x alblu~n blq hoxnasl{nq*p{lvhqslq no +ghsq+ bhqslq pe{e q~ ~ql(/ E vnanq nqsop{lvhqslq cn ~o {lqae cl u~n pn{mhsn no{lqae{blq no bepe{nc/ Fdnblq x cnbn nqseou~nhcec e beq ~ohlonq pe{nc ,hoxnasl{ alo meqhbbe cn vhc{hn{l/

    BLQ [NAHPH NOSNQ CLQH FH AECL[NQ 4 Ealpbn ej l{e blq {nahphnosnq clqhfhaecl{nq no blq hoxnasl{nq/Bbnvn i~eosnq x iefeq p{lsnasl{eq/ Eece {n qhoe e blq{nahphnosnq jeqse u~n nqslq qn meosnoieo bbnolq/ o aekbn4 blq ae{s~ajlq vealq cn meqhbbe l cn qhbhaloe p~ncno qn{vh{pn{fnasemnosn alml {nahphnosnq clqhfhaecl{nq/pe{fehsnmnos bnq veqnq clqn~{q/

    BE NQSEOU^NHCE C 4 A~eocl qn jexe hmp{nioecl x ~oe vnt u~n be pe{nc nqskhno qes~{ece" cnkn sepe{ blq ei~dn{lq alo ml{sn{ljhc{f~il/ Nq p{nfn{hkbn u~n nqpn{n 6 mnqnq pe{e bbnve{ eaekl nq se feq n cn be lpn{eaho" nq cnah{" a~eocl nqsqni~{l cnb zhsl cn q~ s{ekedl/

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    BEQ PE[NCNQ H OSN[H L[NQ AML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC

    BEQ FHQ^[EQ 4 B~ajn alos{e be j~mncec no nb nzsn{hl{ cn be aeqe qhnmp{nu~n qne plqhkbn/ Qh ol bli{e" cnkn{ s{ese{ semkho beqpe{ncnq hosn{hl{nq/ Cnkn{ sepe{ beq fhq~{eq q~pn{fhahebnqalo ~o nob~ahcl cn ohvnbeaho x beq {eo~{eq mqhmpl{seosnq alo ~oe meqhbbe nbqshae/

    BLQ ME[ALQ 4 Eqni {nqn cn u ~n b eq ~ohlonq nos{n p~n{seq x vnoseoeq xq~q me{alq nqso khno nqseoaeq/ Be nqp~me P^ no qp{ex

    lf{nan eb mhqml shnmpl ~o k~no ehqbemhnosl x ~oenqseou~nhcec qeshqfeasl{he e be jl{e cn alblae{ nqslqme{alq/

    NBH MH OEAHO CN BE PH OS^[E X CNB MLJL 4 Beq meoajeq cn j~mncec u~n qn fl{meo qlk{n nb hosn{hl{cn be pe{nc p~ncno qn{ s{eseceq alo ~o p{lc~asl nqseoal/Eosnq u~n oece" u~hsn be phos~{e cnqaloajece l nb pepnbalo ~o anphbbl c~{l l ~oe {equ~nse/ Nbhmhon nb mljl aloei~e x anphbbl" qh ol vlbvn{o e epe{nan{/

    [NVNQSH MH NOSL CN PE[NCNQ H OSN[H L[NQ 4

    Epbhu~n ~o {nvnqshmhnosl s{eoqpe{nosn pe{e pe{ncnqhosn{hl{nq alo ~oe k{laje" no ; aepeq" mq ebb cn be tloejmnce/ Nqsn p{lc~asl fl{me ~oe ke{{n{e nqseoae nos{n bepe{nc jmnce x nb {nvnqshmhnosl m~{eb x p~ncn {na~k{h{qnalo phos~{e l pepnb phosecl i{eaheq e q~ pn{mnekhbhcec/

    NB QEBH S[N 4 Beq nfbl{nqanoaheq kbeoaeq bbemeceq +qebhs{n+ qn fl{meoa~eocl be j~mncec eqanocnosn nos{n no aloseasl alo nblzinol cnb eh{n no p{nqnoahe cn aebahl 4 nosloanq qn fl{menb ohs{esl cn aebahl *qebhs{n(/ Pl{ bl seosl" jex u~n nvhse{nqseq q~khceq cn j~mncec *hoxnaahlonq l epbhaeaho cn ~o{nvnqshmhnosl cn ae~ajl(/

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    BEQ PE[NCNQ H OSN[H L[NQ AML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC

    BLQ BLAEBNQ JMNCLQ 4 AEbi~oeq jekhseah lonq qlo jmnceq cnkhcl e beq eashvhcecnq e beq u~n nqsocnqshoeceq 4 alahoeq" bevecn{lq" a~e{slq cn kel x a~e{slq *cn cl{mh{(/ Bej~mncec qn ch{hin cnb aebl{ eb f{l" hoqseboclqn p~nq no beq pe{ncnq meahteql qlk{n nb pe{emnosl nzsn{ol cn beq pe{ncnq j~naeq/ Be alocnoqeaho epe{nanseosl no nb hosn{hl{ cn beq vnoseoeq alml no blq aloc~aslq cn ei~e" mq f{lqu~n nb eh{n emkhnosn/ Qh nqslq aloc~aslq qn noa~nos{eo cnos{l cn be lk{e" bealocnoqeaho p~ncn qn{ pn{meonosn x cn ej be epe{haho cn tloeq jmnceq/

    BE VNOSH BEAH O 4 Nb eh{n f{l u~n nos{e no be jekhseaho qn aebhnose x ae{ie cnj~mnce c/ A~ hcn cn u ~n j exe ; ekn{s~{eq cn vnoshbeahopl{ a~e{sl jmncl pe{e nvea~e{ nqsn eh{n qes~{ ecl cnei~e *~oe ebse x ls{e kede( l chqplqhshvlq cn vnoshbeahoalos{lbece *nb eh{n vhahecl nq eqph{ecl pl{ nzs{eaahomnaohae x {nnmpbetecl pl{ eh{n bhmphl(/

    NB EH QBEMH NOSL CN BEQ PE[NCNQ 4 Be alocnoqeaho qn fl{me semkho no beq pe{ncn q mebehqbeceq/ Be pn{fnase alblaeaho cn ~o ehqbemhnosleoshalocnoqeaho no be pe{sn cnb aebl{ nvhse u~n bej~mncec qn hoqsebn no be pe{nc/ Ol lbvhcn u~n be j~mncecchqmho~xn nb plcn{ ehqbeosn cn blq mesn{hebnq 4 easnaloahnot~cemnosn/

    NB KH QS[N CN BEQ AJH MNONEQ 4 Qh qn p{lc~an alocnoqeaho no be ajhmnone" be j~mncecchq~nbvn nb jlbbo x be q~ahncec x es{evhnqe be pe{ncae~qeocl jl{{hkbnq meoajeq no nb hosn{hl{/ Snoc{ nosloanqu~n u~hse{ nb nob~ahcl" epbhae{ ae~ajl bu~hcl x b~nil ~os{ltl cn {ndhbbe eosnq cn vlbvn{ e nob~ah{/

    NB EKQL[KNOSN CN J^MNCEC 4 P~ncn p{lsnin{ blq blaebnq an{{eclq n hoq~fhahnosnmnosnvnoshbeclq x nzp~nqslq e hmpl{seosnq ve{heahlonq cnjhi{lmns{e alo ~o ekql{knosn cn j~mncec {nae{iekbn e~o cnqj~mhchfhaecl{ nbas{hal a~xl alocnoqecl{ aepsn bej~mncec emkhnosn x be {nalde/

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    NB QSEOL AML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC

    NQSEKBNAN[ ^O CH EIOQSH AL 4 Nb ei~e p~ncn hofhbs{e{qn no beq pe{ncnq nosn{{eceq cn blq qseolq l ie{ednqu~n qn jexeo ho~ocecl alo {ni~be{hcec l bl u~n nq pnl{" pn{meonosnmnosn/No snl{e" ~qsnc p~ncn eas~e{ cnqcn nb nzsn{hl{" bl u~n pn{mhsn p{nvnoh{ o lqbl nb peql cnb e i~e qhol semkho hofhbs{eaho/ Qh ease cnqcn nb hosn{hl{" nqahn{sl u~n hmpnch{ u~n nb ei~e qn hofhbs{n qseol pn{l beq pe{ncnq qni~h{onqseocl jmnceq/ Qho nmke{il" nq be qlb~aho mq p{ashae/ No aeql cnalos{ep{nqho cnb ei~e" nqpn{n be bbniece cn ~o shnmpl qnal x be kedece cn beaepe cn ei~e/

    MESN[H EBNQ K^[CLQ" BEC[H BBL 4 Mldn khno beq q~pn{fhahnq e s{ese{ *nqslq mesn{hebnq qlopl{lqlq( / [npe {n qhnmp{n u~n qne plqhkbn beq d~oseq nos{nblq chqshoslq mesn{hebnq cn be pe{nc cnb qseol *~shbhan ~oml{sn{l nqseoal nqpnaheb pe{e qseolq u~n qn mntabn aloei~e(/ Albu~nbl alo ~o peb~qs{n/

    BEQ ^OH LONQ 4 ^shbhan nqsn mhqml ml{sn{l pe{e {nbbnoe{ beq ~ohlonq nos{nbeq pe{ncnq x nb q~nbl *beq d~oseq cnkn{o qn{ hoabhoeceq xol jl{htlosebnq(/ Epbu~nbl alo nb peb~qs{n/ Mldn cn o~nvlnb flocl > 6 jl{eq cnqp~q/

    BE EPBHAEAH O 4 IEmeqn mq ml{sn{l *nqse vnt alo ~oe mexl{ p{lpl{ahocn ei~e( x epbu~nbl alo {lchbbl l k{laje no ; 1 aepeq/Pe{e ~oe k~noe e cjn{noahe" {nqpnsn n b shnmpl cn qnaeclhochaecl nos{n aece aepe/ J~mncntae eosnq cn ce{ aeceaepe/

    BEQ PE[NCNQ CN JL[MH IO L ANMNOSL 4 No nqseq pe{ncnq ~qn ~o bu~hcl n qpnaheb mntabecl aloe{noe semhtece/ Q{veqn cnb peb~qs{n pe{e epbhae{ nqsemntabe qlk{n beq ~ohlonq nos{n pe{ ncnq x q~nbl" no blqoi~blq nos{eosnq x semkho no blq ei~dn{lq l beq tloeqnqs{lpneceq/ Nzshnoce qlk{n nqseq q~pn{fhahnq ~oe qlb~ahoP^ *no ; aepeq( alo ex~ce cn ~o phoanb/

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    BLQ Q^NBLQAML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC

    BLQ KE[OH ANQ 4 Cnkn{ epbhae{ ~o ke{oht hmpn{mnekbn e keqn cnplbh~{nseol *nqpnaheb pe{e blq mesn{hebnq pl{lqlq almlanmnosl ~ jl{mhio( no ; 1 aepeq *be p{hmn{e alophoanb(/ Nqsn p{lc~asl ol qn cnqieqse x p~ncn snon{ ~oeaekecl +eoshcnqbhteosn+ no fl{me cn e{noe qnae nzsnochceqlk{n be ; aepe eosnq cnb qnaecl/

    NB [NVNQSH MH NOSL CNAL[ESH VL 4 Shnon eqpnasl cn phos~{e x p~ncn epbhae{qn fahbmnosn alophoanb" {lchbbl l phqslbe/ Qn noc~{nan eb nos{e{ no aloseasl

    alo be j~mncec cnb eh{n7 nq m~x c~{l x {nqhqsnosn x e bmhqml shnmpl nq nbqshal/

    BE ILME B U^HCE 4 Blq bec{hbblq q~nbslq cnb noblqecl" beq d~oseq nomljnahceq"beq j~nbbeq cn j~mncec l nb q~nbl mldecl no shnmplq cnbb~vhe fevl{nano be hofhbs{eaho cnb ei~e no nb q~nbl cn beaeqe/ U~hsn nb {nvnqshmhnosl nzhqsnosn" epbhu~n clq aepeqcn ilme bu~hce x {no~nvn nb {nvnqshmhnosl/

    BE PNB A^BE CN PLBHNSH BNOL

    Alblaeocl ~oe pnba~be cn plbhnshbnol" qlk{n pebaeq cnplbhnqsh{nol pl{ ndnmpbl" qn fl{me ~oe ke{{n{ehmpn{mnekbn/ Qni~hcemnosn" qn plon ~o {nvnqshmhnosl nvn os~ebmn osn e{mecl qlk{n be pnba~be x b~nil nb q~nbl/Be almkhoeaho cn ehqbemhnosl x vnoshbeaho nvhse{o beepe{haho cn alocnoqeaho no nb q~nbl/

    BE ALOCNOQEAHO 4 Be j~mncec cn be ame{e qeohse{he pl{ nd/ Q~pn{e qhnmp{ne be cnb eh{n emkhnosn/ Qh nb q~nbl nqs pn{fl{ecl" ~oe pe{sncn be vnoshbeaho qn nfn ase pl{ be ame{e qeohse{he *nqsl qncnkn eb nfnasl sh{l(/ Hmpn{mnekhbtnbl" {nbbnoeocl beq{eo~{eq *eb{ncncl{ cn blq s~klq" nsa/( alo nqp~ me P^/

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    SEKBE [NAEPH S^BESH VE AML ALMKESH [ BE J^M NCEC

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    Ehqbe{~oe k~je{chbbe

    jekhsekbn

    K[HALBEDN - ALOQS[^AAHO - CNAL[EAHO - DE[CHON

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    A{hsn{hlq pe{e nbnih{ nb ehqbeosn5Eosnq cn nmpnte{" x alo nb fho cn nbnih{ be qlb~aho cn ehqbe-

    mhnosl mq nfhaet" alovhnon eoebhte{ beq ae{easn{qshaeq cn bek~je{chbbe x vebl{e{ blq qhi~hnos nq eqpnas lq/

    ^ql cn be k~je{chbbe

    K~je{chbbeol jekhsekbn

    Abhme cn be tloeAece shpl cn ehqbeos n shnon ~oalnfhahnos n cn ehqbemhnos l s {-

    mhal no f ~oaho cn q~ almpl-qhaho x cn q~ i{lql{/

    Nzhqsno ol{meq nqpnafhaeq pe{eaece tloe4 ol c~cn no pnch{

    hofl{meaho e o~nqs{lq vnocn-cl{nq/

    Qlpl{snNb ehqbeosn x be saohae cn alblaeaho u~n qn nbhde pe{e fhde{bl"cnpnocn{o cn be qnpe{eaho" nb i{lql{ x be ebhoneaho cn beqvhieq cn be e{mec~{e cnb sndecl *nqseq vhieq semkho qn cnol-

    mhoeo aek{hlq/

    E

    K

    A

    Ep{lvnajemhnosl cnb nqpeahlC

    Alblaeaho pl{ nb hosn{hl{ l pl{ nb nzsn{hl{N

    A~eocl nq onanqe{hl ep{lvnaje{ eb mzhml nb nqpeahl chqpl-ohkbn no be k~je{chbbe" qn p~ncno nmpbne{ ehqbeosnq u~n" alo ~oalnfhahnosn s{mhal nu~hvebnosn" qlo mq fholq u~n blq mesn-{hebnq ehqbeosnq s{echahloebnq/

    No beq {nfl{meq" alml ol{meinon{eb" nb ehqbemhnos l qn {nebh-te e be meon{e s{echahloeb"alblaeocl ~o ehqbeosn kedl blqfebclonq cn be e{mec~{e cnbsndecl/

    No lk{e o~nve" qn p~ncno albl-ae{ ~olq peonbnq ehqbeosnqnqpnahebnq qlk{n be e{mec~{e xfhde{ qlk{n nqslq mhqmlqpeonbnq blq {eqs{nbnq u~n qh{vnocn qlpl{sn e be alkn{s~{e cn

    S{eqsn{lK~je{chbbejekhsekbn

    Vn{ fhaje-aloqndl + Ehqbe{ ~oe k~je{chbbeol jekhs ekbn

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    Jn{{emhnoseq;

    P{npe{eaho1Almp{lke{ nb nqsecl cn be e{mec~-{e cnb sndecl x s{ese{be qnio beqonanqhcecnq p~nq" ~oe vnt u~n qnjexe alblaecl nb ehqbeosn" xe olqn{ eaanqhkbn/

    No nb aeql cn u~n qn ~shbhan ~o qlblpeonb cn beoe mhon{eb" nq hochqpno-qekbn u~n ~oe cn q~q ae{eq snoie ~o{na~k{hmhnosl cn pepnb g{efs l eb~-mhohl u~n easn alml ke{{n{e cn

    vepl{" nq cnah{" u~n nvhsn u~n bealocnoqeaho qn p{lpei~n pl{ beqfhk{eq {nc~ahnocl be {nqhqsnoahe s{-mhae cnb ehqbeosn/ Alml qn vn no nbnqu~nme" jex u~n l{hnose{ qhnmp{nbe ke{{n{e cn vepl{ jeahe be pe{sn

    F{lhc

    F{lhc

    Qho ke{{n{e cn vepl{

    qahn ilon

    vhqqn~qn , pn{an~qn

    me{sne~

    ei{efn~qn ei{efnq

    be{inq

    J N [ [ E M H N O SE Q

    5

    ;

    ;

    qn{{~ajl

    {nibe

    a~ssn{

    mns{lme{shbbl

    i{epecl{ealo i{epeq

    eoajeq

    meqae{hbbe

    ahose ecjnqhvesekbe cn mecn{e

    i~eosnq

    sebec{l,esl{ohbbecl{

    f{l

    aebl{

    f{l

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    Cnde{ ~oe ame{e cn eh{nnos{n nb ehqbeos n x be alkn{s~-{e cn snde pe{e nvhse{ u~n bee{mec~{e qn p~c{e x qn cns n-{hl{no beq sndeq *3 am alml

    mohml nos{n beq sndeq x nbehqbeosn(/

    Ol almp{hmh{ o~oae be beoemhon{eb l q~ {nqhqsnoahe s{-mhae qn vn{ {nc~ahce/

    Blq peonbnq ehqbeosnq cnkno

    nqse{ khno alblaeclq" kl{cnalos {e kl{cn" pe{e nvhs e{ u~nnb aebl{ qn nqaepn *~shbhte{ aho-seq ejnqhveq cn pepnb l cneb~mhohl(/

    Pe{e lksnon{ ~o ehqbemhnoslpshml" nq onanqe{hl chqs{h-

    k~h{ l{hfhahlq pe{e be vnoshbe-aho pl{ be e{mec~{e cnb snde-cl/ Nqseq vnoshbeahlonq qnek{no no be pe{sn ebse" no bekede x vn{shaebnq *iesn{eq(" e{eto cn ~oe vnos hbeaho pl{aece 5> m ; cn sndecl/

    3 am

    3

    3

    >

    6

    9

    9

    Hoqsebeaho35( Qlk{n vhieq {ni~be{nq

    Alblaeaho cn pbeaeq cn plbhnqsh{nol nzs{~hclFhdeaho alo abevlq l sl{-ohbblq4

    Fhde{ blq peonbnq qlk{n beq vhieqaece 10 am" ~shbhteocl abevlq lsl{ohbblq cn aeknte eoaje ieb-veohteclq l holzhcekbnq/

    sndeehqbeosn

    cnb sndecl

    vhie

    iesn{e

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    e s l { o h b be {

    n b a b h p

    Fhdeaho alo abhpq4

    Qhs ~e{ nb p{hmn{ peonb x p{n-qnos e{ blq abhpq alo s l{ohbblq cnaeknte eoaje iebveohtece/

    Alblae{ ~o qni~ocl peonbnoaedoclbl no nb p{hmn{l/Esl{ohbbe{ ~o abhp pe{e be fhde-aho cnb qni~ocl peonb/

    ;( Qlk{n vhieq h{{ni~be{nq

    5 e aepe4 blq peonbnq cn beoemhon{eb {ihce qn al{seo nos{hoi~bl pe{e feahbhse{ q~ed~qsn nos{n beq vhieq/

    ^shbhte{ peonbnq cnb nqpnql{cn beq vhieq mnolq ; am*nqslq ; am cn chfn{noahepn{mhsh{o u~n nb eh{n ah{a~-bn pl{ cns{q cn blq peonbnq(/

    Cnqbhte{ blq s{hoi~blq cn

    abhp

    Alblaeaho cn clq aepeq cn beoe m hon{ebE

    abhp

    vhie

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    Ilbpne{ alo nb me{-shbbl qlk{n nb aeoslcnb peonb q~pn{hl{jeqse aloqni~h{ u~nu~ncn slsebmnosnep{ns~decl alos{enb peonb hofn{hl{/Hosn{plon{ ~oe pn-u~ne sekbe cnmecn{e pe{e nvhse{u~n nb me{shbbl cn-sn{hl{n be beoe/Qh u~nceo ebi~oeq{nochdeq" ep{lvn-aje{ blq phalq u~njeo qlk{ecl pe{esepe{beq/

    ; e aepe4 qn ~shbhteo peonbnq{ihclq cn beoe mhon{eb {nvnq-shclq/

    Es l{ohbbe{ beq peseq cn fhde-aho e beq vhieq aece >8 am*qse nq be chqseoahe al{{na-se pe{e alblae{ cnqp~qbeq pbeaeq cn ae{so-xnql(/

    Blq peonbnq cn beoe qnhoqn{seo no beq peseq cnf hdeaho pl{ e{{hke/ Qnnmphnte alblaeocl be fhbecn peonbnq u~n nqs nol l l b bl

    pbeoajnssn

    pese cn f hdeahope{e beoe mhon-

    {eb {nvnqshce

    Eosnq cn nmpnte{" me{ae{ nb ohvnb cn be vhie u~n mq qlk{nqebie alo ex~ce cn ~o al{cnb/ Ed~qse{ e nqsn ohvnb nb cnb {nqsl cn beq vhieq mncheosn be hos{lc~aaho cn pnu~neq a~eq cn mecn{e/

    E S N O A H O

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    Alblaeaho cn ~o ehqbeosn fholK

    ^shbhteocl ~oeq shdn{eq" al{se{

    sh{eq cn ehqbeosn/ Nb eoajl cnbeq sh{eq qn{ be qnpe{eahonos{n vhieq mq ' 1 am cnme{ino e aece becl / Nqsn me{-ino pn{mhsn i{epe{ blq besn-{ebnq cn beq sh{eq e beq vhieq/

    ^oe vnt alblaecl nb ehqbeosn"qn fhdeo qlk{n beq vhieq blq {eq-s{nbnq aece 30 l 60 am/ Nqslq{eqs{nbnq qh{vno qhm~bsone-mnosn pe{e qlpl{se{ nb mesn-{heb u~n qn ~shbhan alml {nvnq-shmhnosl cn be k~je{chbbe*f{hql" pbeaeq cn ae{so xnql"nsa///( x pe{e meos non{ qnpe{e-cl chajl {nvnqshmhnos l cnb ehq-beosn x u~n ah{a~bn nb eh{n/Eosnq cn hoqsebe{ blq {eqs{nbnq"nq onanqe{hl almp{lke{ nbohvnb cnb alod~osl/ No aeql cnu~n j~khn{e h{{ni~be{hcecnq"qn al{{hino alblaeocl a~eqcn mecn{e pl{ cns{q cn blq{eqs{nbnq" eosnq cn fhde{blq/

    30l

    60 am

    a~e

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    Ehqbe{ ~oek~je{chbbe

    ol jekhsekbn

    K[HALBEDN - ALOQS[^AAHO - CNAL[EAHO - DE[CHON

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    Eosnq cn nmpnte{" x alo nb f ho cn nbnih{ be qlb~aho cn ehqbemhnos l mqnfhaet" alovhnon eoebhte{ beq ae{easn{qshaeq cn be k~je{chbbe x vebl{e{blq qhi~hnosnq eqpnaslq4

    E( ^ql cn be k~je{chbbe K~je{chbbeq jekhs ekbnq/

    K~je{chbbeq ol jekhsekbnq/ S{eqsn{lq/

    K( Abhme cn be tloeAece shpl cn ehqbeosn shnon ~oalnfhahnosn cn ehqbemhnosl s{mh-

    al no f~oaho cn q~ almplqhahox cn q~ i{lql{/

    Nzhqsno ol{meq nqpnafhaeq pe{eaece tloe4 ol c~cn no pnch{

    hofl{meaho e o~nqs{lq vnocn-cl{nq/

    A( Qlpl{snNb ehqbeosn x be saohae cn alblaeaho u~n qn nbhde pe{e fhde{bl" cnpno-cn{o cn be qnpe{eaho" nb i{lql{ x be ebhoneaho cn beq vhieq cn bee{mec~{e cnb s ndecl/

    C( Alblaeaho pl{ nb hosn{hl{ l pl{ nb nzsn{hl{No beq {nfl{meq" alml ol{me inon-{eb" nb ehqbemhnosl qn {nebhte e bemeon{e s{echahloeb" alblaeocl ~o

    ehqbeosn kedl blq febclonq cn bee{mec~{e cnb s ndecl/

    No lk{e o~nve" nq plqhkbn alblae{~olq peonbnq ehqbeosnq nqpnahebnqqlk{n be e{mec~{e x fhde{ qlk{n

    nqs lq mhqmlq peonbnq blq {eqs{nbnqu~n qh{vno cn qlpl{sn e be alkn{-s~{e cn sndeq" phte{{e" nsa/

    A{hsn{hlq pe{e nbnih{ nb ehqbeosn5

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    Almp{lke{ nb nqsecl cn be e{mec~{ecnb sndecl x s{ese{be qnio beq onanqh-cecnq p~nqsl u~n" ~oe vnt u~n qn jexealblaecl nb ehqbeosn" xe ol qn{ eaan-qhkbn/

    No nb aeql cn u~n qn ~shbhan ~o qlblpeonb cn beoe mhon{eb" nq hochqpnoqekbnu~n ~oe cn q~q ae{eq snoie ~o {na~k{h-mhnosl cn pepnb g{efs l eb~mhohl u~neasn alml ke{{n{e cn vepl{" nq cnah{" u~nnvhsn u~n be alocnoqeaho qn p{lpei~npl{ beq fhk{eq {nc~ahnocl be {nqhqsnoahe s{-mhae cnb ehqbeosn/ Alml qn vn no nb nqu~n-

    " j l{h { h { b k {{ {

    F{lhc

    Qho ke{{n{e cn vepl{

    Jn{{emhnoseq;J N [ [ E M H N O SE Q

    P{npe{eaho1

    5

    ;

    ;

    qn{{~ajl

    {nibe

    a~ssn{

    mns{lme{shbbl

    i~eosnq

    sebec{l,esl{ohbbecl{

    i{epecl{e*pe{e beoemhon{eb(

    meqae{hbbe {eqs{hbbl

    F{l

    Aebl{

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    Cnde{ ~oe ame{e cn eh{n nos{nnb ehqbeosn x be alkn{s~{e cn sndepe{e nvhse{ u~n be e{mec~{e qnp~c{e x qn cnsn{hl{no beq sndeq *3am alml mohml nos{n beq sndeq x

    nb ehqbeos n(/

    Ol almp{hmh{ o~oae be beoemhon{eb l q~ {nqhqsnoahe s{mhae qnvn{ {nc~ahce/

    Blq peonbnq ehqbeosnq cnknonqse{ khno alblaeclq" kl{cn alos{ekl{cn" pe{e nvhse{ u~n nb aebl{ qnnqaepn *~shbhte{ ahoseq ecjnqhveq cnpepnb l cn eb~mhohl(/

    Pe{e lksnon{ ~o ehqbemhnoslpshml" nq onanqe{hl chqs{hk~h{ l{h-fhahlq pe{e be vnoshbeaho pl{ bee{mec~{e cnb sndecl/ Nqseq vnoshbe-ahlonq qn ek{no no be pe{s n ebs e" nobe pe{sn kede x vn{shaebnq *iesn{eq("e {eto cn ~oe vnoshbeaho pl{aece 5> m ; cn sndecl/

    3 am

    s~hbnfhbmql~q s lhs ~{n

    ajnv{lo

    ajesh{n

    K~je{chbbeq ol jekhsekbnq K~je{chbbeq u~n qn ~shbhteoalml s{eqsn{lEhqbe{ nb q~nbl cn be k~je{chbbepe{e u~n nb aebl{ ol qn phn{ce es{evq cnb snajl cn be aeqe/

    Ehqbe{ nb sndecl pn{mhsn u~n nb

    aebl{ qn p{lpei~n pl{ be k~je{-chbbe x nvhse beq p{chceq cn aebl{jeahe nb nzsn{hl{/

    3

    >

    6

    9

    3

    9

    Cocn alblae{ nb ehqbeosn3

    sndeehqbeosncnb sndecl

    vhie

    iesn{e

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    Mndl{e{ nb ehqbemhnosl cnb q~nbl

    Cnqno{{lbbe{ be beoe mhon{ebnos {n beq vhieq/

    Hmpl{seosn4 Be ke{{n{e cn vepl{qhnmp{n je cn nqse{ l{hnosecejeahe be pe{sn aebhnosn cn be aeqe"no nqsn aeql" jeahe ekedl/

    E

    E '5 am

    p{hmn{eaepe

    Hoqsebeaho>K~je{chbbeq ol jekhsekbnq cn chfahb eaanql

    Alovhnon me{ae{ nb peql cn beq aloc~a- ahlonq nbas{haeq alo " cn nqse f l{me" no aeql cn onanqhcec" qn p~ncno blaebhte{ f ahbmnosn cnkedl cnb ehqbeos n/

    A L O Q N D L

    5

    ;

    1

    Pe{e lksnon{ ~o ehqbemhnosl nfhaet plcnmlq ~shbhte{ beoe mhon{eb no {lbbl" alo aepeahcec pe{e nb ehqbemhnos l eaqshal/ Be beoe mhon{eb cnkn snon{ ~o nqpnql{ cn nos{n 5: x ;0 am" xe qne pe{e chqplon{be no ~oe qlbe aepe l no clq aepeq a{~teceq/

    Mnch{ be chqseoahe nos{n clqvhieq *E(/

    S{eqbece{ nqse mnchce mq 5am eb {lbbl cn beoe mhon{eb *aloke{{n{e cn vepl{( x al{se{be alo~o qn{{~ajl/

    5

    ;

    1

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    Esnoaho%Nqsn shpl cn hoqsebeaho qbl p~ncn nfnas~e{qn alo ehqbeosnq cn plalnqpnql{/Aloqhcn{eocl u~n ~oe vhie nqsoce{ s hnon ~o i{lql{ cn ep{lzhmece-mnos n :0 mm x u~n nq onanqe{hl cnde{ ~oe ame{e cn eh{n nos {n nb ehq-beosn x blq febclonq cnb sndecl" nb nqpnql{ cnb ehqbeosn ol p~ncn q~pn-{e{ blq 90 mm/

    Chqplon{ sh{eq cn ehqbeosn nmpnteo-cl pl{ ~o {hoao cn be k~je{chbbe/ Beqsh{eq cn beoe mhon{eb qn alblaeo cn e{{h-ke eke